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Ford Mondeo Service and Repair Manual

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Models covered All Ford Mondeo models with four-cylinder petrol engines, including special/limited editions 1597 cc, 1796 cc and 1988 cc Does not cover Diesel or V6 engines, or four-wheel-drive models
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Content Preview
Ford Mondeo
Service and Repair Manual
Jeremy Churchill and A K Legg LAE MIMI
(1923-304-10X3)
Models covered
All Ford Mondeo models with four-cylinder petrol engines,
including special/limited editions
1597 cc, 1796 cc and 1988 cc
Does not cover Diesel or V6 engines, or four-wheel-drive models
© Haynes Publishing 1996
Printed by J H Haynes & Co. Ltd, Sparkford, Nr Yeovil,
Somerset BA22 7JJ

A book in the Haynes Service and Repair Manual Series
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
Haynes Publishing
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
Sparkford, Nr Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ, England
photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system,
without permission in writing from the copyright holder.
Haynes North America, Inc
861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, California 91320, USA
ISBN 1 85960 167 7
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Editions Haynes S.A.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
147/149, rue Saint Honoré, 75001 PARIS, France

Contents
LIVING WITH YOUR FORD MONDEO
Introduction
Page
0•4
Safety First!
Page
0•5
General dimensions and weights
Page
0•6
MOT Test Checks
Checks carried out from the driver’s seat
Page
0•7
Checks carried out with the vehicle on the ground
Page
0•8
Checks carried out with the vehicle raised
Page
0•9
Checks carried out on your vehicle’s exhaust emission system
Page
0•10
Roadside Repairs
Jacking, towing and wheel changing
Page
0•11
Booster battery (jump) starting
Page
0•12
Identifying leaks
Page
0•13
Conversion factors
Page
0•14
Routine Maintenance
Routine maintenance and servicing
Page
1•1
Lubricants, fluids and capacities
Page
1•2
Maintenance schedule
Page
1•3
Weekly checks
Page
1•6
Every 10 000 miles or 12 months
Page
1•11
Every 20 000 miles or 2 years
Page
1•20
Every 30 000 miles or 3 years
Page
1•22
Every 60 000 miles
Page
1•26
Every 3 years
Page
1•26

Contents
REPAIRS & OVERHAUL
Engine and Associated Systems
In-car engine repair procedures
Page 2A•1
Engine removal and general engine overhaul procedures
Page 2B•1
Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems
Page
3•1
Fuel and exhaust systems
Page
4•1
Engine electrical systems
Page
5•1
Emissions control systems
Page
6•1
Transmission
Manual transmission
Page 7A•1
Automatic transmission
Page 7B•1
Clutch and driveshafts
Page
8•1
Brakes
Braking system
Page
9•1
Suspension
Suspension and steering systems
Page 10•1
Body Equipment
Bodywork and fittings
Page 11•1
Electrical
Body electrical systems
Page 12•1
Wiring Diagrams
Page 12•24
REFERENCE
Tools and Working Facilities
Page REF• 1
General Repair Procedures
Page REF• 4
Buying spare parts and vehicle identification numbers
Page REF• 5
Fault Finding
Page REF• 6
Glossary of Technical Terms
Page REF•13
Index
Page REF•17

Introduction
0•4
Introduction to the Ford Mondeo
Introduced in March 1993, the Ford
belt grabbers” and pre-tensioners, and an
capacities. It is controlled by a sophisticated
Mondeo models are available in four-door
airbag fitted to the steering wheel. Vehicle
engine management system, which combines
Saloon, five-door Hatchback and five-door
security is enhanced, with an in-built alarm
multi-point sequential fuel injection and
Estate configurations. All feature a high
system and engine immobiliser being fitted as
distributorless ignition systems with
standard of equipment, with driver/passenger
standard, as well as double-locking doors
evaporative emissions control, exhaust gas
safety in accidents being a particularly high
with shielded locks, and security-coded audio
recirculation and a three-way regulated
design priority; all models are fitted with
equipment.
catalytic converter (with a pulse-air system for
features such as side impact bars in all doors,
The four-cylinder petrol engine is a new
rapid warm-up) to ensure that the vehicle
“anti-submarine” seats combined with “seat
design, available in 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 litre
complies with the most stringent of the
emissions control standards currently in force,
and yet provides the levels of performance
and fuel economy expected.
The transversely-mounted engine drives
the front roadwheels through either a five-
speed manual transmission with a cable-
operated clutch, or through an electronically-
controlled four-speed automatic transmission.
The fully-independent suspension is by
MacPherson strut on all four roadwheels,
located by transverse lower arms at the front,
and by transverse and trailing arms at the rear;
anti-roll bars are fitted at front and rear. The
Estate rear suspension is of a different design,
to give maximum loadspace inside the
vehicle, with self-levelling suspension units
available as an option. On some models, the
suspension is electronically-controlled
through the Adaptive Damping System.
The steering is power-assisted, the pump
being belt-driven from the engine, and the
rack-and-pinion steering gear mounted
behind the engine.
The vacuum servo-assisted brakes are disc
at the front, with drums at the rear on most
Ford Mondeo 2.0 Ghia Saloon
models; disc rear brakes and an
electronically-controlled Anti-lock Braking
System (ABS) are available on some models,
with a Traction Control System (TCS) available
as a further option where ABS is fitted.
Acknowledgements
Thanks are due to Champion Spark Plug,
who supplied the illustrations showing spark
plug conditions. Certain other illustrations are
the copyright of the Ford Motor Company,
and are used with their permission. Thanks
are also due to Sykes-Pickavant Limited, who
provided some of the workshop tools, and to
all those people at Sparkford who helped in
the production of this manual.
Project vehicles
The main project vehicle used in the
preparation of this manual, and appearing in
many of the photographic sequences, was a
1993-model Ford Mondeo 2.0 Si Hatchback.
Additional work was carried out and
photographed on a 1993-model 2.0 Si Saloon
and a 1993-model 2.0 Ghia Estate (with
automatic transmission).
Ford Mondeo 1.8 GLX Estate

Safety First! 0•5
Working on your car can be dangerous.
• Mains voltage is also dangerous. Make
Special hazards
This page shows just some of the potential
sure that any mains-operated equipment is
risks and hazards, with the aim of creating a
correctly earthed. Mains power points should
Hydrofluoric acid
safety-conscious attitude.
be protected by a residual current device
• This extremely corrosive acid is formed
General hazards
(RCD) circuit breaker.
when certain types of synthetic rubber, found
Fume or gas intoxication
in some O-rings, oil seals, fuel hoses etc, are
Scalding
exposed to temperatures above 4000C. The
• Exhaust fumes are
• Don’t remove the radiator or expansion
rubber changes into a charred or sticky
poisonous; they often
tank cap while the engine is hot.
substance containing the acid. Once formed,
contain carbon
• Engine oil, automatic transmission fluid or
the acid remains dangerous for years. If it
monoxide, which is
power steering fluid may also be dangerously
gets onto the skin, it may be necessary to
rapidly fatal if inhaled.
hot if the engine has recently been running.
amputate the limb concerned.
Never run the
• When dealing with a vehicle which has
Burning
engine in a
suffered a fire, or with components salvaged
confined space
• Beware of burns from the exhaust system
from such a vehicle, wear protective gloves
such as a garage
and from any part of the engine. Brake discs
and discard them after use.
with the doors shut.
and drums can also be extremely hot
• Fuel vapour is also
The battery
immediately after use.
poisonous, as are the vapours from some
• Batteries contain sulphuric acid, which
Crushing
cleaning solvents and paint thinners.
attacks clothing, eyes and skin. Take care
• When working under or near
Poisonous or irritant substances
when topping-up or carrying the battery.
a raised vehicle, always
• The hydrogen gas given off by the battery
• Avoid skin contact with battery acid and
supplement the
is highly explosive. Never cause a spark or
with any fuel, fluid or lubricant, especially
jack with axle
allow a naked light nearby. Be careful when
antifreeze, brake hydraulic fluid and Diesel
stands, or use
connecting and disconnecting battery
fuel. Don’t syphon them by mouth. If such a
drive-on ramps.
chargers or jump leads.
substance is swallowed or gets into the eyes,
Never venture
seek medical advice.
Air bags
under a car
• Prolonged contact with used engine oil can
which is only
• Air bags can cause injury if they go off
cause skin cancer. Wear gloves or use a
supported by
accidentally. Take care when removing the
barrier cream if necessary. Change out of oil-
a jack.
steering wheel and/or facia. Special storage
soaked clothes and do not keep oily rags in
• Take care if loosening or tightening high-
instructions may apply.
your pocket.
torque nuts when the vehicle is on stands.
• Air conditioning refrigerant forms a
Diesel injection equipment
Initial loosening and final tightening should
poisonous gas if exposed to a naked flame
be done with the wheels on the ground.
• Diesel injection pumps supply fuel at very
(including a cigarette). It can also cause skin
high pressure. Take care when working on
Fire
burns on contact.
the fuel injectors and fuel pipes.
• Fuel is highly flammable; fuel vapour is
Asbestos
explosive.
• Asbestos dust can cause cancer if inhaled
Warning: Never expose the
• Don’t let fuel spill onto a hot engine.
or swallowed. Asbestos may be found in
hands, face or any other part of
• Do not smoke or allow naked lights
gaskets and in brake and clutch linings.
the body to injector spray; the
(including pilot lights) anywhere near a
When dealing with such components it is
fuel can penetrate the skin with
vehicle being worked on. Also beware of
safest to assume that they contain asbestos.
potentially fatal results.
creating sparks
(electrically or by use of tools).
• Fuel vapour is heavier than air, so don’t
work on the fuel system with the vehicle over
Remember...
A few tips
an inspection pit.
• Another cause of fire is an electrical
DO
DON’T
overload or short-circuit. Take care when
• Do use eye protection when using power
• Don’t attempt to lift a heavy component
repairing or modifying the vehicle wiring.
tools, and when working under the vehicle.
which may be beyond your capability – get
• Keep a fire extinguisher handy, of a type
assistance.
suitable for use on fuel and electrical fires.
• Do wear gloves or use barrier cream to
protect your hands when necessary.
• Don’t rush to finish a job, or take
Electric shock
unverified short cuts.
• Do get someone to check periodically
• Ignition HT
that all is well when working alone on the
• Don’t use ill-fitting tools which may slip
voltage can be
vehicle.
and cause injury.
dangerous,
• Don’t leave tools or parts lying around
especially to
• Do keep loose clothing and long hair well
where someone can trip over them. Mop
people with
out of the way of moving mechanical parts.
up oil and fuel spills at once.
heart problems
• Do remove rings, wristwatch etc, before
or a pacemaker.
working on the vehicle – especially the
• Don’t allow children or pets to play in or
Don’t work on or
electrical system.
near a vehicle being worked on.
near the ignition
• Do ensure that any lifting or jacking
system with the
equipment has a safe working load rating
engine running or the
adequate for the job.
ignition switched on.

General Dimensions & Weights
0•6
Dimensions
Overall length:
Saloon, Hatchback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4481 mm
Estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4631 mm
Overall width - including mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1925 mm
Overall height - at kerb weight:
Saloon, Hatchback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1403 to 1435 mm
Estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1416 to 1501 mm
Wheelbase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2704 mm
Front track - all models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1503 mm
Rear track:
Saloon, Hatchback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1486 to 1487 mm
Estate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1504 mm
Turning circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.9 m
Weights
Kerb weight:
1.6 Saloon, Hatchback models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1215 to 1250 kg
1.6 Estate models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1265 to 1275 kg
1.8 Saloon, Hatchback models:
Manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1225 to 1260 kg
Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1260 to 1280 kg
1.8 Estate models:
Manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1275 to 1285 kg
Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1305 kg
2.0 Saloon, Hatchback models:
Manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1250 to 1310 kg
Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1285 to 1340 kg
2.0 Estate models:
Manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1295 to 1335 kg
Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1330 to 1415 kg
Maximum gross vehicle weight:
Saloon, Hatchback:
1.6 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1725 kg
1.8 Saloon models, automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1750 kg
2.0 models, automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1800 kg
All others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1775 kg
Estate:
1.6 models, 2.0 models with manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . .
1900 kg
All others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1925 kg
Maximum roof rack load:
Estate models with integral roof rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100 kg
All others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75 kg
Maximum towing weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1500 kg
Trailer nose weight limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75 kg

MOT Test Checks
0•7
This is a guide to getting your vehicle through the MOT test.
Obviously it will not be possible to examine the vehicle to the same
standard as the professional MOT tester. However, working through
the following checks will enable you to identify any problem areas
before submitting the vehicle for the test.
Where a testable component is in borderline condition, the tester
has discretion in deciding whether to pass or fail it. The basis of such
discretion is whether the tester would be happy for a close relative or
friend to use the vehicle with the component in that condition. If the
vehicle presented is clean and evidently well cared for, the tester may
be more inclined to pass a borderline component than if the vehicle is
scruffy and apparently neglected.
It has only been possible to summarise the test requirements here,
based on the regulations in force at the time of printing. Test standards
are becoming increasingly stringent, although there are some
exemptions for older vehicles. For full details obtain a copy of the Haynes
publication Pass the MOT! (available from stockists of Haynes manuals).
An assistant will be needed to help carry out some of these checks.
The checks have been sub-divided into four categories, as follows:
1
2
3
4
Checks carried out
Checks carried out
Checks carried out
Checks carried out on
FROM THE DRIVER’S
WITH THE VEHICLE
WITH THE VEHICLE
YOUR VEHICLE’S
SEAT
ON THE GROUND
RAISED AND THE
EXHAUST EMISSION
WHEELS FREE TO
SYSTEM
TURN
1Checks carried out
FROM THE DRIVER’S SEAT
Handbrake
? Test the operation of the handbrake.
Excessive travel (too many clicks) indicates
incorrect brake or cable adjustment.
? Check that the handbrake cannot be
released by tapping the lever sideways. Check
the security of the lever mountings.
? Check that the brake pedal is secure and in
movement of the steering wheel, indicating
good condition. Check also for signs of fluid
wear in the column support bearings or
leaks on the pedal, floor or carpets, which
couplings.
would indicate failed seals in the brake master
cylinder.
Windscreen and mirrors
? Check the servo unit (when applicable) by
? The windscreen must be free of cracks or
operating the brake pedal several times, then
other significant damage within the driver’s
keeping the pedal depressed and starting the
field of view. (Small stone chips are
engine. As the engine starts, the pedal will
acceptable.) Rear view mirrors must be
move down slightly. If not, the vacuum hose or
secure, intact, and capable of being adjusted.
the servo itself may be faulty.
Steering wheel and column
Footbrake
? Examine the steering wheel for fractures or
? Depress the brake pedal and check that it
looseness of the hub, spokes or rim.
does not creep down to the floor, indicating a
? Move the steering wheel from side to side
master cylinder fault. Release the pedal, wait
and then up and down. Check that the
a few seconds, then depress it again. If the
steering wheel is not loose on the column,
pedal travels nearly to the floor before firm
indicating wear or a loose retaining nut.
resistance is felt, brake adjustment or repair is
Continue moving the steering wheel as before,
necessary. If the pedal feels spongy, there is
but also turn it slightly from left to right.
air in the hydraulic system which must be
? Check that the steering wheel is not loose
removed by bleeding.
on the column, and that there is no abnormal

MOT Test Checks
0•8
Electrical equipment
? Inspect both front brake flexible hoses for
?
cracks or deterioration of the rubber. Turn the
Switch on the ignition and check the steering from lock to lock, and ensure that the
operation of the horn.
?
hoses do not contact the wheel, tyre, or any
Check the windscreen washers and wipers,
part of the steering or suspension mechanism.
examining the wiper blades; renew damaged
With the brake pedal firmly depressed, check
or perished blades. Also check the operation
the hoses for bulges or leaks under pressure.
of the stop-lights.
Seat belts and seats
Note: The following checks are applicable to
all seat belts, front and rear.

? Examine the webbing of all the belts
(including rear belts if fitted) for cuts, serious
fraying or deterioration. Fasten and unfasten
each belt to check the buckles. If applicable,
check the retracting mechanism. Check the
security of all seat belt mountings accessible
? Check the operation of the sidelights and
from inside the vehicle.
number plate lights. The lenses and reflectors
Steering and suspension
? The front seats themselves must be
must be secure, clean and undamaged.
securely attached and the backrests must
?
? Have your assistant turn the steering wheel
Check the operation and alignment of the
lock in the upright position.
from side to side slightly, up to the point where
headlights. The headlight reflectors must not
the steering gear just begins to transmit this
Doors
be tarnished and the lenses must be
movement to the roadwheels. Check for
undamaged.
? Both front doors must be able to be opened
?
excessive free play between the steering
Switch on the ignition and check the
and closed from outside and inside, and must
wheel and the steering gear, indicating wear or
operation of the direction indicators (including
latch securely when closed.
insecurity of the steering column joints, the
the instrument panel tell-tale) and the hazard
column-to-steering gear coupling, or the
warning lights. Operation of the sidelights and
steering gear itself.
stop-lights must not affect the indicators - if it
? Have your assistant turn the steering wheel
does, the cause is usually a bad earth at the
2Checks carried out
more vigorously in each direction, so that the
rear light cluster.
WITH THE VEHICLE ON THE
?
roadwheels just begin to turn. As this is done,
Check the operation of the rear foglight(s),
GROUND
examine all the steering joints, linkages,
including the warning light on the instrument
fittings and attachments. Renew any
panel or in the switch.
Vehicle identification
component that shows signs of wear or
Footbrake
damage. On vehicles with power steering,
? Number plates must be in good condition,
check the security and condition of the
secure and legible, with letters and numbers
? Examine the master cylinder, brake pipes
steering pump, drivebelt and hoses.
correctly spaced – spacing at (A) should be
and servo unit for leaks, loose mountings, ? Check that the vehicle is standing level,
twice that at (B).
corrosion or other damage.
and at approximately the correct ride height.
Shock absorbers
? Depress each corner of the vehicle in turn,
then release it. The vehicle should rise and
then settle in its normal position. If the vehicle
continues to rise and fall, the shock absorber
is defective. A shock absorber which has
seized will also cause the vehicle to fail.
? The fluid reservoir must be secure and the
? The VIN plate (A) and homologation plate
fluid level must be between the upper (A) and
(B) must be legible.
lower (B) markings.

MOT Test Checks
0•9
Exhaust system
Front and rear suspension and
? The same general checks apply to vehicles
?
wheel bearings
fitted with other suspension types, such as
Start the engine. With your assistant
torsion bars, hydraulic displacer units, etc.
holding a rag over the tailpipe, check the
? Starting at the front right-hand side, grasp
Ensure that all mountings and attachments are
entire system for leaks. Repair or renew
the roadwheel at the 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock
secure, that there are no signs of excessive
leaking sections.
positions and shake it vigorously. Check for
wear, corrosion or damage, and (on hydraulic
free play or insecurity at the wheel bearings,
types) that there are no fluid leaks or damaged
suspension balljoints, or suspension mount-
pipes.
ings, pivots and attachments.
?
? Inspect the shock absorbers for signs of
Now grasp the wheel at the 12 o’clock and
serious fluid leakage. Check for wear of the
6 o’clock positions and repeat the previous
mounting bushes or attachments, or damage
inspection. Spin the wheel, and check for
to the body of the unit.
roughness or tightness of the front wheel
bearing.
Driveshafts
(fwd vehicles only)
? Rotate each front wheel in turn and inspect
the constant velocity joint gaiters for splits or
damage. Also check that each driveshaft is
straight and undamaged.
3Checks carried out
WITH THE VEHICLE RAISED
AND THE WHEELS FREE TO
TURN
Jack up the front and rear of the vehicle,
? If excess free play is suspected at a
and securely support it on axle stands.
component pivot point, this can be confirmed
Position the stands clear of the suspension
by using a large screwdriver or similar tool and
assemblies. Ensure that the wheels are
levering between the mounting and the
clear of the ground and that the steering
component attachment. This will confirm
can be turned from lock to lock.
whether the wear is in the pivot bush, its
Braking system
retaining bolt, or in the mounting itself (the bolt
Steering mechanism
? If possible without dismantling, check
holes can often become elongated).
?
brake pad wear and disc condition. Ensure
Have your assistant turn the steering from
that the friction lining material has not worn
lock to lock. Check that the steering turns
excessively, (A) and that the discs are not
smoothly, and that no part of the steering
fractured, pitted, scored or badly worn (B).
mechanism, including a wheel or tyre, fouls
any brake hose or pipe or any part of the body
structure.
? Examine the steering rack rubber gaiters
for damage or insecurity of the retaining clips.
If power steering is fitted, check for signs of
damage or leakage of the fluid hoses, pipes or
connections. Also check for excessive
stiffness or binding of the steering, a missing
split pin or locking device, or severe corrosion
of the body structure within 30 cm of any
steering component attachment point.
? Carry out all the above checks at the other
front wheel, and then at both rear wheels.
Springs and shock absorbers
? Examine all the rigid brake pipes
? Examine the suspension struts (when
underneath the vehicle, and the flexible
applicable) for serious fluid leakage, corrosion,
hose(s) at the rear. Look for corrosion, chafing
or damage to the casing. Also check the
or insecurity of the pipes, and for signs of
security of the mounting points.
bulging under pressure, chafing, splits or
? If coil springs are fitted, check that the
deterioration of the flexible hoses.
spring ends locate in their seats, and that the
? Look for signs of fluid leaks at the brake
spring is not corroded, cracked or broken.
calipers or on the brake backplates. Repair or
? If leaf springs are fitted, check that all
renew leaking components.
leaves are intact, that the axle is securely
? Slowly spin each wheel, while your
attached to each spring, and that there is no
assistant depresses and releases the
deterioration of the spring eye mountings,
footbrake. Ensure that each brake is operating
bushes, and shackles.
and does not bind when the pedal is released.

MOT Test Checks
0•10
for smoke emissions from the exhaust
tailpipe. If the idle speed is obviously much
too high, or if dense blue or clearly-visible
black smoke comes from the tailpipe for more
than 5 seconds, the vehicle will fail. As a rule
of thumb, blue smoke signifies oil being burnt
(engine wear) while black smoke signifies
unburnt fuel (dirty air cleaner element, or other
carburettor or fuel system fault).
? An exhaust gas analyser capable of
measuring carbon monoxide (CO) and
hydrocarbons (HC) is now needed. If such an
instrument cannot be hired or borrowed, a
? Examine the handbrake mechanism,
properly seated, and that the wheel is not
local garage may agree to perform the check
checking for frayed or broken cables,
distorted or damaged.
for a small fee.
excessive corrosion, or wear or insecurity of
? Check that the tyres are of the correct size
the linkage. Check that the mechanism works
for the vehicle, that they are of the same size
CO emissions (mixture)
on each relevant wheel, and releases fully,
and type on each axle, and that the pressures
? At the time or writing, the maximum CO
without binding.
are correct.
?
level at idle is 3.5% for vehicles first used after
It is not possible to test brake efficiency
? Check the tyre tread depth. The legal
August 1986 and 4.5% for older vehicles.
without special equipment, but a road test
minimum at the time of writing is 1.6 mm over
From January 1996 a much tighter limit
can be carried out later to check that the
at least three-quarters of the tread width.
(around 0.5%) applies to catalyst-equipped
vehicle pulls up in a straight line.
Abnormal tread wear may indicate incorrect
vehicles first used from August 1992. If the
Fuel and exhaust systems
front wheel alignment.
CO level cannot be reduced far enough to
? Inspect the fuel tank (including the filler
Body corrosion
pass the test (and the fuel and ignition
cap), fuel pipes, hoses and unions. All
?
systems are otherwise in good condition) then
Check the condition of the entire vehicle
components must be secure and free from
the carburettor is badly worn, or there is some
structure for signs of corrosion in load-
leaks.
problem in the fuel injection system or
bearing areas. (These include chassis box
? Examine the exhaust system over its entire
sections, side sills, cross-members, pillars,
catalytic converter (as applicable).
length, checking for any damaged, broken or
and all suspension, steering, braking system
missing mountings, security of the retaining
HC emissions
and seat belt mountings and anchorages.)
clamps and rust or corrosion.
Any corrosion which has seriously reduced
? With the CO emissions within limits, HC
the thickness of a load-bearing area is likely to
emissions must be no more than 1200 ppm
cause the vehicle to fail. In this case
(parts per million). If the vehicle fails this test
professional repairs are likely to be needed.
at idle, it can be re-tested at around 2000
? Damage or corrosion which causes sharp
rpm; if the HC level is then 1200 ppm or less,
or otherwise dangerous edges to be exposed
this counts as a pass.
will also cause the vehicle to fail.
? Excessive HC emissions can be caused by
oil being burnt, but they are more likely to be
due to unburnt fuel.
4Checks carried out on
Diesel models
YOUR VEHICLE’S EXHAUST
? The only emission test applicable to Diesel
EMISSION SYSTEM
engines is the measuring of exhaust smoke
density. The test involves accelerating the
Petrol models
engine several times to its maximum
Wheels and tyres
? Have the engine at normal operating
unloaded speed.
?
temperature, and make sure that it is in good
Examine the sidewalls and tread area of
Note: It is of the utmost importance that the
tune (ignition system in good order, air filter
each tyre in turn. Check for cuts, tears, lumps,
engine timing belt is in good condition before
element clean, etc).
bulges, separation of the tread, and exposure
the test is carried out.
? Before any measurements are carried out,
of the ply or cord due to wear or damage.
raise the engine speed to around 2500 rpm,
? Excessive smoke can be caused by a dirty
Check that the tyre bead is correctly seated
and hold it at this speed for 20 seconds. Allow
air cleaner element. Otherwise, professional
on the wheel rim, that the valve is sound and
the engine speed to return to idle, and watch
advice may be needed to find the cause.

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