African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (5), pp. 422-426, May 2009
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR
ISSN 1991-637X © 2009 Academic Journals
Functional components of berry fruits and their usage
in food technologies
Önder Yildiz1* and Sadiye Peral Eyduran2
1Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Igd?r University, Igd?r-Turkey.
2Özalp Vocational School, Department of Horticulture, Ozalp, Van-Turkey.
Accepted 20 May, 2009
In recent years, nutritious features of foods produced and consumed as well as their roles in disease
prevention have been taken into consideration. It has been reported in numerous studies that food
habits are connected with many illnesses including cancer. It is reported that some components with
anti-oxidative effects which are present in different quantities in berry fruits reduce the negative effects
brought out by free radicals that serve as agents in those ailments. Additionally, doubts about artificial
anti-oxidants which are being used in industry have increased the tendency in consumption of natural
anti-oxidant sources such as berry fruits. The effects of processes carried out in food industry are
considerably significant on functional components of these fruits that are used for different purposes.
So, some points that require utmost care in order to minimize loss are necessary to be determined. In
this review, we will focus on functional components of berry fruits, detection methods of these
components, their presence rates in different berry fruits, possibilities of using them as functional
foods and the effect of food processes on these components.
Key words: Berry fruits, antioxidant, food process.
There is direct relationship between nourishment and
nents used as anti-oxidants. The interest on use of anti-
health. Use of nutritious foods help in increasing life
oxidant in diet from natural sources (phytochemicals) has
expectancies and increase resistance against many
diseases like, cancer, obesity and some cardiovascular
Free radicals are taken as a result of physiological acti-
diseases. Good food habits lead consumers to expect
vities, various external agents or nourishment and have
various benefits from foods they buy together with their
roles in curing numerous chronic il nesses, notably
nutrition (Ethertan et al., 2002). There has been increase
cancer and aging (Shahidi, 2004; Ekici and Sa d?ç,
in research pertaining to foods cal ed functional foods in
2008). Besides this harmful effects of free radicals are
recent years. These foods bear components far beyond
control ed by natural defense systems in body, that are
basic nourishment and have positive effects on health.
necessarily supported by natural anti-oxidant compo-
Blandol et al. (2007) reported that production and con-
nents taken through diet (Koca and Karadeniz, 2005;
sumption of these foods have increased manifolds during
Berry fruits including raspberry, blackberry, strawberry,
One of the most common components in functional
viburnum opulus and huckleberries that grow natural y in
food production is use of anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants are
various parts of Turkey are included in the group of fruits
important substances that are used in food industry to
with high amounts of anti-oxidant capacity (Mil er et al.,
prevent rotting and help long storage, transportation and
2000). With the rapid developing functional food sector in
easy marketing without deteriorating quality of the pro-
the recent years, use of these fruits as functional compo-
duct. There are hundreds of natural or synthetic compo-
nents has increased asthey include basic components in
the form of anti-oxidants.
This review describe functional components of berry
fruits, their detection methods, their percentage in differ-
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com.
rent fruits, using possibilities in functional foods and the
Yildiz and Eyduran 423
effect of food processes on these components.
were compared. While no more difference was observed
between types in terms of photochemical ingredients and
anti-oxidant capacity, in respect to black ones, red
Functional components of berry fruits
raspberries. They found more than 80% total phenolic
Most of the fruits and vegetables include functional com-
matter and approximately 6 times more anthocyanin.
ponents in grate scale as polyphenols, flavonoids, fibre,
Anti-oxidant capacities of black raspberries are two times
linoleic acid isomers, gal ate, epigal ocatechin, soya
more than red ones. Especial y, high anthocyanin (2176 -
protein, isoflovonons, A, B, C, E vitamins, tocoferoles,
2417 µg/g) and total phenolic (2853 - 3102 µg/g). It is
Ca, Se, chlorophyl , sulphides, catechin, uric acid and
therefore of primary importance to use black raspberries
protease inhibitors (Karakaya and Kavas, 1999). A review
in cancer treatment.
of the previous research shows that flavonoids, vitamin E,
Blackberries and raspberries grow natural y in almost
phenolic acids, phenols, carotenoids and vitamin C are
al parts of Turkey, especial y in black sea region. These
the most commonly found components in berry fruits.
fruits include high amounts of polyphenol like antho-
Phenolic compounds cause oxidation resulting in different
cyanin (Eyduran et al., 2008a; Eyduran et al., 2008b).
problems during the processing of fruits and vegetables.
While high pigmented berry fruits like blackberry and
Anthocyanins are present in cel ular juice in form of gly-
raspberry have the highest anti-oxidant capacity (5100 -
coside which is formed by conjugation of one substance
5500 TE) (Türemi et al., 2003).
that is glucose and one another which is not (Cemero lu
Functional components differ in berry fruits according to
and Acar, 1986). Blackberries, raspberries and straw-
harvest period. In a study carried out by Wang and Lin
berries each are good sources of anti-oxidants (Heinonen
(2000), on leaf and fruit of different culture kinds such as
et al., 1998).
spineless raspberries (Rubus sp.), red raspberries
These functional components present in berry fruits
(Rubus idaeus), black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis)
have various positive effects like protection against differ-
and strawberries (Fragaria ananassa), total phenolic and
rent ailments, binding of free radicals and prevention of
total anthocyanin ingredients were determined by ORAC
lipid peroxidation in foods. Therefore, to make use of
method. While maximum total anti-oxidant capacity and
these positive effects their consumption should be taken
total phonologic components in raspberry and flowers are
as behaviour (Ça lar?rmak, 2006).
present in green period, these values are at highest in
GC/MS (Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometer)
raspberry when the fruit is ripe. The amount of total
(Kafkas et al., 2006; Türemi et al., 2003), spectro-
anthocyanin increased in al three types as the fruitsriped.
photometer (Akbulut et al., 2007; Özgen and Scheerens,
The same study determined that as the leaves get older,
2006; Mil er et al., 2000) and HPLC (Henderson et al.,
total phenolic and total anti-oxidant capacities decreased.
1999) are used most commonly used to determine phe-
As the ripe fruits are analysed, it is found out that
nolic components. Additional y, total anti-oxidant capa-
anthocyanin ingredients of black raspberries and
city, is determined by TROLOX which is a synthetic
blackberries were high after red raspberries. In another
vitamin E and is used as a standard anti-oxidant. It binds
study, anti-oxidant capacities of ripe black raspberries,
free radicals or stop oxidation of foods total anti-oxidant
strawberries, blackberries and red raspberries were
capacity of food is expressed as; TEAC (trolox equivalent
determined and anti-oxidant ingredients of black
anti-oxidant capacity), ORAC (free radical clearance) or
raspberries and blackberries were found more compared
DPPH (diphenyl picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity) (Wu
to red raspberries and strawberries. Cyanide glycoside
et al., 2004; Huang et al., 2005).
which is a powerful anti-oxidant is found in higher
Functional components and features of berry fruits
amounts in black raspberries and blackberries (Macheix
have differences. At the same time, environmental factors
et al., 1990). Besides, strawberries are reported to be rich
are effective in changing these differences (Eyduran et
in pelargonid-3 glycoside (Gil et al., 1997).
al., 2008). In a study carried out by Elmasta and
Gerçekçio lu (2006), 3 different tests were used to
Usages of berry fruits in industry
determine anti-oxidant activities of some berry fruits. The
results showed that viburnum opulus is the fruit with high-
Natural components that are consumed in different ways
est anti-oxidant capacity, according to total anti-oxidant
are used for healing increase functional features of food
test, raspberry is found to be the fruit with highest anti-
and are used in food formulas.
oxidant capacity. In rosehip, phenolic component ratio is
Berry fruits are more commonly consumed fresh on the
found to be less but ascorbic acid ratio is determined to
table. In food technologies, they are also used to extract
be much more than other fruits. In this study, phenolic
fruit juice, make fruit syrup, jam and marmalade ice-
components and derivatives are said to be metabolites
cream, fruit yogurt and fruit milk, candy, cake and gum
that are primarily responsible for anti-oxidant activity in
and some bakery products. In the functional food sector
berry fruits are also being used for preparation of natural
In a study carried out by Özgen and Scheerens (2006),
herbal teas. During production, the effects of processes
anti-oxidant capacities of some black and red raspberries
applied on especial y functional components of berry
424 Afr. J. Agric. Res.
fruits should be given due importance.
capacity of cereal products is either equal to fruits or
vegetables or more than that. For instance, anti-oxidant
capacities of melon and water-melon are less than 100
Drying of berry fruits
TE (Trolox Equivalents/100 g sample), anti-oxidant capa-
Even the presence of berry fruits and dried fruits in daily
cities of berry fruits is extremely high (1900 - 5500 TE)
diet in lesser amounts is enough to supply anti-oxidants
(Mil er et al., 2000).
in significant amounts. For anti-oxidant capacity is dama-
Berry fruits especial y are also used as sweetener to
ged to lesser extents during drying. For instance, drying
aromate and are used as colorant in functional cereal
grape increases its anti-oxidants 4.3 times (Mil er et al.,
products for breakfast. Dried huckleberry commonly
added into berry fruits especial y are used as sweetener
In this patent study conducted, it is stated that solid
aroma and colorant in functional cereal products for
powder mixtures obtained from fruit seeds or fruit seed
breakfast. Cereal products for breakfast, it can also be
fractions could be used in the production of foods like
used for enrichment of instant cereal products in form of
cake, muffin and yogurt. Thus, these foods are supported
powder. Huckleberries are reportedly used as whole or
by anti-oxidants, linoleic acid, soluble and insoluble diet
sweetened in flake products commercial y (Batu and
fibre that are good for health (Yu and Moore, 2007).
Fruits and vegetables serve as good anti-oxidant
sources, but al cereal products for breakfast bear a
It’s usage in fruit-juice production
considerable amount of anti-oxidants equal in weight.
When anti-oxidant capacity is 2000 TE in whole meal
In the recent years, production and consumption of func-
bread, this value is accounted as 1200 TE in white bread.
tional food has increased throughout the world (Menrad,
In dry weight, these values are 3000 and 1800 TE res-
2003). Because high amounts of functional components
pectively. The difference between the breads is due to
are present in berry fruits and their juice, it is advised that
the existence of bran and embryo in whole-meal bread.
they should be used to prevent il ness and promote
On the other hand, there is a different based on the type
healthy living habits (Bermúdez-Soto and Tomás-
of the wheat. The anti-oxidant capacity of red wheat is
Barberán, 2004). Berry fruits are rich in anthocyanin and
more than those of others (Mil er et al., 2000). For this
anti-oxidant components like ascorbic acid (Burdurlu et
reason, products produced by using white flours with
al., 2005). There is a direct correlation between anti-
increasing the anti-oxidant components by berry fruits
oxidative activity of a food and total phenolic substance it
can be investigated.
includes (Elmasta and Gerçekçio lu, 2006; Velio lu et
During baking bakery products in oven, carcinogenic
al., 1998). In a study carried out by Netzel et al. (2002), it
agents including acrylamide can be produced in relation
is found out that, by consumption of a special fruit-juice
with Mail ard reaction. In a study conducted, the effects of
mixture composed of berry fruits, a significant increase
two plants anti-oxidant feature on acrylamide wel -known
took place in anti-oxidant capacity of blood and products
are used in bread production and acrylamide formation is
brought out by lipid peroxydase decreased.
detected to have decreased (Hedegaard et al., 2008).
Yu and Moore (2007) report from different researches
Similarly, it is expressed that, undesired Mail ard reaction
that seed oils and wheat of various berry fruits that can
in UHT milks is prevented by anti-oxidants in green tea
also be used in fruit-juice production, significant amounts
(Schamberger and Labuz, 2007). These studies give
of -linolenic acids and natural anti-oxidants detected. At
ideas about using possibilities of berry fruits with various
the same time, these seeds and their fractions can be
included as tocopherole, caratonoids and as natural
colour taste and aroma agents. Al of these components
may be used to increase nutrition value, quality and
Their usage in special foods
security of different food formulas.
In the diet of celiac patients, there should be enough
amounts of fibre. These fibres can be supplied from
Their usage in bakery products
different plant sources. Although al fruits include fibre,
raspberry and blackberry are reported to be rich in fibres;
Diets enriched with fruits and vegetables are marvel ous
taste, aroma and fibre source of berry fruits, regulating
sources of anti-oxidants (Ness and Powles, 1997).
beneficial process (digestion) in mammals can be used in
Experimental epidemiological studies shows that, there is
bakery products to produce gluten free cake (Arendt and
a significant relationship between cereal, fruit and vege-
Bel o, 2008).
table consumption and lesser amounts of catching il -
nesses (Greenberg and Sporn, 1996; Jacobs et al.,
Their usage as additive
Anti-oxidant capacities of cereals, fruits and vegetables
One of the important usages of berry fruits in food
display significant differences. The average anti-oxidant
industry is their use as natural colorant. Technological y
Yildiz and Eyduran 425
processed meat, vegetable, fruit, bakery and dairy pro-
passed into fruit-juice is only 32%. Some of these
ducts are tried to be turned into the colours they had
functional substances (1 – 18%) are determined to be left
before the procession.
in pomace. The loss in anthocyan?n and phenolic compo-
Nutritious fibres that are present in fruits have no
nents are expressed to be caused by the activity of
important role. But solvable fibres such as pectin that are
natural poliphenolic oxidase enzyme during pressing and
present in huckleberries can decrease glisemic index by
depectinisation processes. The amount of anthocyan?n in
delaying digestion of carbohydrates and sugar absorption
pasteurized fruit-juice is higher (4%) than the one found
which precede just afterwards (Camire, 2000).
in pressed fruit-juice. This is said to be caused by
Anti-oxidants have a wide variety of usage in food
inactivation of enzyme, which was active during solution
industry. By protecting foods against rotting, these com-
and pressing processes, by pasteurisation.
ponents enable them to be stored for a long time. Some
Ge´linas and McKinnon (2006) stated that the concen-
of these components are buthylised hydroxytolien (BHT)
tration of phonologic components increase a bit during
and buthylised hydroxyanisol (BHA) components. In the
baking white bread. This condition is reported to be
recent years, because of synthetic anti-oxidants like BHT
because of products that are formed by the conclusion of
and BHA and doubts about safety of using them in long
Mail ard reaction. Hansen et al. (2002) says that al pro-
scale, there is an ever increasing tendency of using
cess steps (kneading, fermentation and baking) in
natural anti-oxidants (Gazzani et al., 1998; Yu and
producing black bread have the least effect on total pho-
Moore, 2007). In the recent years, because of synthetic
nologic components. However, Friedman (2004) thinks
anti-oxidants like BHT and BHA and doubts about safety
that baking destroys many phenolic components.
of using them in long scale, there is an ever increasing
After jam production process, in plum, cherry and rasp-
tendency of using natural anti-oxidants (Gazzani et al.,
berry fruits, more than 73% of total phenolic substances
1998; Yu and Moore, 2007). In a similar study, anti-
and 65% of anti-oxidant capacity is preserved. These
oxidant capacity of raspberry is found to be 83.2% while
ratios may be increased by optimisation activities carried
this value for BHT was 88.8% (Elmasta and
out (Kim and Zakour, 2004; Ötle and Ça ?nd?, 2005).
Gerçekçio lu, 2006).
Biscuits produced by using 3 different plant extracts
with high anti-oxidant content are compared with the
synthetic anti-oxidant (BHA) including biscuits and control
biscuits. Natural plant extracts have displayed perfect
Fruit and vegetable rich diets include anti-oxidants in
anti-oxidant effect. Acid and peroxide values that show
considerable amounts and their preventing cancer is
oxidation level after 6 weeks of storage are found to be
proved by many researches. Within the fruits, the ones
lower (Reddy et al., 2005).
with highest anti-oxidant rates are berry fruits. In order to
make use of beneficial effects of them in terms of health,
Effects of food processes on anti-oxidant capacity
they should be consumed life-long in optimum amounts.
These fruits (raspberry, blackberry and rosehip) that have
The food’s anti-oxidant capacity may be affected by
good effects on human health grow in wild within Turkey
processes like baking, peeling and boiling. In a study
and we would better generalise good features of these
carried out, the effect of baking and boiling processes on
fruits and people should be encouraged to consume
anti-oxidant capacity of different vegetables is
berry fruits. In order to get the maximum benefit,
investigated (Wu et al., 2004). Baking is significantly
harvesting periods of berry fruits should be wel
affecting anti-oxidant capacity. For instance, while anti-
determined and the young leaves should especial y be
oxidant capacity did not change in white potato, this
amount decrease in carrots and increased in tomatoes.
Berry fruits are being used in food industry for many
The reason why different foods are affected by baking in
purposes such as source to main components, natural
different scales may be related directly by their natural
anti-oxidant source, taste and colour substance etc. The
structure and molecular structures of anti-oxidants they
studies conducted to determine functional components in
include. Researchers are in the belief that foods that
these fruits can be used instead of synthetic components
include flavonoids and poliphenolic components are more
like BHT and BHA. Steps in food processing such as
stable than the foods that include vitamins and related
drying, boiling, pasteurisation, depectinisation and baking
components (Wu et al., 2004). For there is limited data
in oven are affecting functional components in berry
about the effects of process on anti-oxidant components
fruits. On the other hand, it is stated that, by optimization
in fruits and vegetables.
studies concerning formulation, the losses in these
Skrede et al. (2000) have studied changes in antho-
significant components can be reduced. There is limited
cyan?n and poliphenolic components of frozen rasp-
data about the effects of processes on these components
berries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during processing
of fruits, there is need for such studies. Additional y,
into fruit-juice and concentrated products. While the yield
further studies are also necessary to point out the effects
of fruit-juice obtained from raspberry is 83%, anthocyan?n
of these components on health and food.
426 Afr. J. Agric. Res.
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