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Functional Foods : A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients

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Functional foods have increasingly gained attention regarding their ability to reduce the onset of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were the following: 1) to evaluate blueberry muffins for protein, lipid, ash, moisture, and carbohydrate content differences when incorporating traditional ingredients compared to soymilk and flaxseed, and 2) to determine through sensory evaluation if untrained panelists could detect a difference among those blueberry muffins. Four muffins were prepared (control, soymilk, flaxseed, and soymilk/flaxseed) using a blueberry muffin mix. Sensory evaluation was performed by 107 untrained panelists among four different muffin batches. Sensory panelists were asked to rate the appearance, blueberry muffin flavor, sweetness, and the overall impression of each product on a 1 to 5 Hedonic scale rating, using 1 for dislike extremely and 5 for like extremely. Statistical analyses were determined using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at p
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by tyler downs on May 18th, 2011 at 11:10 pm
what the heck?
by chevahn morris on May 18th, 2011 at 11:12 pm
Happy Birthday TYLER DOWNS!!!
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Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients
Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin
Ingredients

Kerrie L. Kaspar and Sandra Majoni
Graduate Students, Food and Nutritional Sciences
Keywords: Functional foods, soymilk, flaxseed
Abstract
Functional foods have increasingly gained attention regarding their
ability to reduce the onset of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular
disease. The objectives of this study were the following: 1) to evaluate
blueberry muffins for protein, lipid, ash, moisture, and carbohydrate
content differences when incorporating traditional ingredients compared
to soymilk and flaxseed, and 2) to determine through sensory evaluation
if untrained panelists could detect a difference among those blueberry
muffins. Four muffins were prepared (control, soymilk, flaxseed, and
soymilk/flaxseed) using a blueberry muffin mix. Sensory evaluation
was performed by 107 untrained panelists among four different muffin
batches. Sensory panelists were asked to rate the appearance, blueberry
muffin flavor, sweetness, and the overall impression of each product on a
1 to 5 Hedonic scale rating, using 1 for dislike extremely and 5 for like
extremely. Statistical analyses were determined using Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at p<0.05.
Quantitative measurements indicated that soymilk muffins had a higher
moisture (34.0%) and protein (6.42%) content, flaxseed and soymilk
muffins had a higher level of ash (1.65%) and lower lipid content of
10.7%. Sensory evaluation concluded that there was no significant differ-
ence for the appearance, blueberry muffin flavor, sweetness, or the overall
impression among the four different muffin types. Soymilk muffin was
rated highest in appearance (3.87) and blueberry muffin flavor (3.51).
Compared to the other muffins types, flaxseed muffins were rated highest
in moistness (4.02). This study showed that functional foods can be incor-
porated into traditional food products with no discernable loss in appear-
ance, flavor, or sweetness and the additional soy protein and
minerals may assist in the prevention of the onset of chronic diseases.

35

Journal of Student Research
Introduction
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one killer of
Americans, responsible for approximately one million deaths per year
(American Heart Association, 2005). In order to reduce the risk of
CVDs, more functional foods should be incorporated into the typical
American diet. A functional food is often referred to as any food that
exhibits health benefits beyond the common nutrients it contains.
Research has shown that functional foods, such as soy protein and
flaxseed, help reduce the risk of CVD (Bloedon, 2004) and can easily be
included in the diet. For example, flaxseed can be used to replace eggs
in baking or cooking, which will add valuable ??linolenic acid (ALA)
and soluble fiber that are important to consume since they have been
found to reduce total cholesterol levels (Bloedon, 2004).
Recently, flaxseed has shown potential for CVD prevention due to its
composition of ALA, soluble fibers, and lignans. These components
are believed to protect the cardiovascular system by reducing serum
cholesterol, platelet aggregation and inflammatory markers (Bloedon,
2004). Epidemiological data suggest that the consumption of ALA,
soluble fiber, and lignans have an inverse correlation with the develop-
ment of CVD. One controlled study (Jenkins, Kendall, Vidgen, Agarwal,
& Rao, 1999) using 29 hypercholesterolemic adults investigated the
effect of the dietary intake of wheat and de-fatted flaxseed via
the consumption of muffins. After three weeks, the flaxseed muffin
intervention group had a significant difference (p<0.001) in lowered
total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol levels as opposed to the
wheat muffin control group. This short-term study suggests that fiber
and lignan components from the flaxseed incorporated into muffins
helped to reduce total cholesterol levels (Bloedon, 2004). However,
there was no indication as to the analysis of the protein, fat, or mineral
content of the muffins, or mention of preference for the flaxseed muffins
compared to traditional muffins commonly made using milk, eggs, or oil.
Soymilk, an additional functional ingredient, is rich in a class of
phytochemicals called isoflavones. The most commonly occurring
isoflavones in soy, diadzein, genistein, and glycitein have been found to
display potent antioxidant effects such as the prevention of LDL
oxidation (Murphy & Wilson, 2001). These antioxidant effects of soy are
important for maintaining cardiovascular health. Since a primary cause
of CVD is the build-up of plaque in arterial walls of the cardiovascular
system, and any plaque taken up by the arterial walls due to oxidative
damage to LDL cholesterol particles (Murphy & Wilson, 2001) can lead
36

Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients
to CVD, it is believed that consumption of soy products may prevent
lipid oxidation, which subsequently prevents plaque buildup in arterial
walls, hence inhibiting CVD.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protein, fat,
moisture, and mineral content of traditional muffins using 2% milk and
eggs compared to muffins having functional ingredients, soymilk and
flaxseed incorporated, and to determine through sensory evaluation
which muffin type is most acceptable.
Materials and Methods
Muffin Preparation
Four different batches of muffins (control = 2% milk, eggs, and
oil; soymilk = soymilk, eggs, and oil; flaxseed = 2% milk, flaxseed, and
oil; soymilk and flaxseed = soymilk, flaxseed, and oil) were prepared
as follows using a purchased blueberry muffin mix (Betty Crocker Wild
Blueberry, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN) for sensory evaluation
and analytical testing. Control muffins were prepared by combining
three-fourths cup of 2% cow’s milk (Land-O-Lakes, Franklin Park, IL),
one-fourth cup pure canola oil (J. M. Smucker Co., Orrville, OH), and 2
large grade A eggs (Country Creek Farms, Rogers, AZ) with the
blueberry muffin mix and dropping one-third cup portions of batter into
each paper lined muffin cup. The muffins were baked at 425º F for
approximately 16 minutes. The soymilk muffins were prepared by
combining three-fourths cup plain Silk soy milk (White Wave Inc.,
Boulder, CO), one-fourth cup pure canola oil, and two large grade A
eggs with the blueberry muffin mix and dropping one-third cup portions
of batter into each paper lined muffin cup. The muffins were baked at
425º F for approximately 16 minutes. The flaxseed batch of muffins was
prepared by combining three-fourths cup of 2% cow’s milk, one-fourth
cup pure canola oil, 2 Tbsp. ground flaxseed (Arrowhead Mills,
Hereford, TX) and 6 Tbsp. tap water with the blueberry muffin mix and
dropping one-third cup portions of batter into each muffin cup. The
muffins were baked at 425ºF for approximately 16 minutes. The flaxseed
and soy milk batch was prepared by combining three-fourths cup plain
Silk soy milk, one-fourth cup pure canola oil, 2 Tbsp. ground flaxseed
and 6 Tbsp. tap water with the blueberry muffin mix and dropping
one-third cup portions of batter into each muffin cup. The muffins were
baked at 425ºF for approximately 16 minutes.
37

Journal of Student Research
Moisture Content
Each muffin type was analyzed for total moisture content in triplicate
according to the AOAC Official Method 931.04. Briefly, the muffin
samples were finely ground with a coffee bean grinder to produce a
homogeneous mixture for a 3 g muffin sample and were dried in an oven
(Lindenburg Blue Mechanical) set at 105ºC for twenty-four hours.
Following drying, samples were cooled in a dessicator for one-half hour
and the mass taken. Moisture content was determined by a weight
difference calculation.
Ash Content
Each muffin type was analyzed for ash content in triplicate according
to the AOAC Official Method 923.03 as follows. The mass was recorded
for a 3g homogeneous muffin sample. The weighed samples were then
placed in conditioned ash crucibles and heated in a furnace (Thermolyne
1300) set at 575ºC for twenty-four hours. The samples were cooled in a
dessicator for one hour and the mass dried. Ash content was determined
by a weight difference calculation.
Protein Content
Each muffin type was analyzed for protein content in triplicate accord-
ing to the AOAC Official Method procedure 920.87. Approximately 0.4
g of homogeneous muffin sample mass was recorded and placed in a
Kjeldahl flask so that 1.6 g of Kjeldahl digestion tablet (K2SO4 + Se),
5.0 mL of sulfuric acid, and 2 Hengar granules were combined. The flask
was then connected to an aspirator, heated to a boil, allowed to digest for
approximately one hour, and then allowed to cool to room temperature.
Next, 20.0 mL of distilled water was added to each flask. The Kjeldahl
digestion flasks were connected to a distillation apparatus and a
condenser tube from the distillation apparatus was placed below the
surface of 50 mL of boric acid receiving solution. Blue indicator dye was
added to the boric acid in the receiver adsorption flask to determine
when the solution has been converted to ammonia. A layer of 20 mL of
10 M NaOH was added to the digestion flask without agitation. Two
pieces of mossy zinc were added to each digestion flask to prevent
bumping during the distillation process, and the contents were swirled
gently to mix the two layers. The digestion flask was then connected to
the condenser and heated to boiling at a temperature of 140? F until half
of the solution was distilled. After the distillation was complete,
the received boric acid/ammonia mixture was titrated with standardized
0.05 M HCl. The endpoint occurred when the indicator dye in the
38

Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients
boric acid solution turned from blue back to its original color prior to
the distillation. Protein calculation content was calculated from the
quantified amount of ammonia ions in the receiving solution.
Lipid Content
Each muffin type was analyzed for lipid content in triplicate. An
accelerated solvent extractor (ASE 200, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA) was
used to extract total lipids of a 5 g homogenous sample. The pressure
during extraction was maintained at 1,500 psi at a temperature of 105ºC.
Each muffin sample was placed in an extraction cartridge containing a
cellulose filter pad, loaded onto the ASE, and extracted three times with
25 mL of reagent grade petroleum ether with a static duration of 10
minutes. The total extraction was 30 min./sample for 12 samples.
The extract (25 mL) was evaporated under a nitrogen flow until no
petroleum ether was detected. The vials were placed in a drying oven
(100ºC) for 30 minutes to evaporate residual solvent and transferred
to a dessicator to cool for 30 minutes. The mass of the remaining lipids
in the vials was used to calculate the total lipid content as a mass
percentage of the original muffin mass (5 g).
Sensory Evaluation
Voluntary sensory evaluation panelists were asked to taste the four
different blueberry muffin samples. Sensory panelists received a tray
with each sample coded by a random 3-digit number, a cup of spring
water, and a questionnaire. Panelists were given one sample at a
time. The order of presenting the samples was randomized so that each
sample appeared in a given position an equal number of times. Sensory
panelists were asked to rate the appearance, blueberry muffin flavor,
sweetness, and overall impression on a 1-5 Hedonic scale rating where
1=dislike extremely and 5=like extremely. Panelists were directed to
take a sip of water between each muffin sample so that there was no
carry-over taste.
Statistical Analysis
Statistical Analysis of the data was carried out using One-way Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the acceptability of the type of
muffin. A significance level of p<0.5 and F value were considered.
Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS.
39

Journal of Student Research
Results and Discussion
Moisture, Ash, Protein, and Lipid
Table 1 indicates the average percent values for the moisture, ash,
protein, and lipid. The highest moisture content was in the soymilk
muffin (34.2%), and the lowest was the flaxseed and soymilk muffin
(31.6%). The average moisture content was 33.0%. The highest protein
was found in the soymilk muffin (6.42%), and the lowest was in the
flaxseed muffin (5.92%). The average protein content in the blueberry
muffins was 6.12%. The overall ash content for all muffins was 1.62%.
The flaxseed and soymilk muffin showed the highest ash content
(1.65%) while the control and flaxseed muffins were the lowest (1.60%).
The lipid content was highest, (14.4%) for the control muffin and lowest
for the flaxseed and soymilk muffin (10.7%).
Sensory Ratings
Figure 1 shows the average appearance ratings for each muffin. The
panelists rated the soymilk slightly better on appearance (3.87) than the
other muffins. The lowest appearance rating was the flaxseed muffin
(3.61). The sensory analysis was performed under red lights to mask any
color differences and consumers still preferred the appearance of the
soymilk muffin compared to other muffins.
Figure 2 indicates the average flavor ratings. A similar pattern was
observed, as the soymilk muffin rated significantly higher in flavor
40

Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients
(3.51). People liked the flavor of these muffins more compared to the
other muffins. The least liked muffin flavor was flaxseed (3.00). Soymilk
muffin has the highest protein content which may have contributed to
the desirable muffin flavor.
Figure 3 shows the average muffin sweetness ratings. The rating
pattern changed and panelists liked the sweetness of the control muffin
(3.67) slightly better than the other muffins. The lowest rated muffin was
flaxseed (3.25).
Figure 4 indicates the average ratings on moistness of the muffins. The
panelists preferred the moistness of the flaxseed muffin more than the
other types of muffins. The average value for the flaxseed moistness
attribute was 4.02. The moisture content for the flaxseed muffin was
33.4% and the moisture content for the soymilk muffin was 34.2%,
Interestingly, the moisture content of the flaxseed muffin was slightly
lower than the soymilk muffin but higher than the average moisture con-
tent (33.0%) for the blueberry muffins. There is a correlation between
the moisture content and the degree of moistness of the muffin. Higher
moisture content indicates that the muffin would be moister. It is
postulated that the panelists may have preferred the moderate moist-
ness but did not like muffins that are either too dry or too moist. The
control muffin with moisture content of 32.9% was the least rated
in terms of moistness (3.38) and was significantly lower (p<0.05) than
the soymilk muffin.
41

Journal of Student Research
Figure 1. Average appearance rating of each Blueberry muffin
n=107; 1=Values followed by different lower cases letters are significantly different
(p<0.05) Hedonic rating where 1=Dislike extremely, 5 =Like extremely
Figure 2. Average flavor rating of each Blueberry muffin
n=107; 1=Values followed by different lower cases letters are significantly different
(p<0.05) Hedonic rating where 1=Dislike extremely, 5 =Like extremely
42

Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients
Figure 3. Average sweetness rating of each Blueberry muffin
n=107; 1=Values followed by different lower cases letters are significantly different
(p<0.05) Hedonic rating where 1=Dislike extremely, 5 =Like extremely
Figure 4. Average moistness rating of each Blueberry muffin
n=107; 1=Values followed by different lower cases letters are significantly different
(p<0.05) Hedonic rating where 1=Dislike extremely, 5 =Like extremely
43

Journal of Student Research
Overall Sensory Acceptability
The overall sensory acceptability rating results are summarized in Table
2. Overall there was no significant main effect from the sensory ratings on
the four blueberry muffins (p=0.584, F =0.654). Therefore, panelists liked
the four different muffins equally in terms of appearance, flavor, sweet-
ness, and moistness.
Conclusion
Much research has been conducted on the health benefits of soy
protein and it is suggested that incorporating 25 grams per day of
soy protein as part of a low saturated fat and cholesterol diet may reduce the
risk of heart disease. In the current study it was found that the soymilk muffin
had a higher protein content mostly attributed to the soy protein. It is postulat-
ed that more health benefits will be obtained if using this functional food com-
pared to traditional ingredients (eg., whole milk). The moisture content is a
strong indicator of the degree of moistness in the muffins.The panelists liked the
moistness of the flaxseed muffin, which is a functional food.Therefore, incorpo-
rating these ingredients into making muffins can improve the overall sensory
attributes. The lipid results showed that soymilk, flaxseed, and flaxseed and
soymilk muffins had a lower fat content than the control. In addition to being
functional foods, soymilk and flaxseed decreased the fat content of the muffins.
This study demonstrated that functional ingredients can be incorporated into
food products with no loss in appearance, flavor, or moistness. The
important benefit of soy protein and a lowered lipid content from muffins using
soymilk and flaxseed supports further use of incorporating these ingredients
into foods.
44

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