World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1 (2): 169-172, 2005
© IDOSI Publications, 2005
Guava Fruit Anthracnose and the Effects on its
Nutritional and Market Values in Ibadan, Nigeria
1M.O. Oladapo and
Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University,
Moor Plantation, P.M.B. 5029, Ibadan, Nigeria
Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago Iwoye, Nigeria
Abstract: The etiology of guava fruit anthracnose was investigated at Ibadan in the humid forest of Southern
Nigeria. Result of the investigation revealed that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was responsible for the
anthracnose and the fruit rot diseases of guava fruit. Eighty percent of the guava plants were found infected
with anthracnose disease and over 40% of the fruit produced on those trees were severely infected. The
non-infected guava fruit was significantly higher than the anthracnose infected guava fruit in carbohydrates,
crude fibre, ash, fat, protein, Ca, Fe and P. A significant reduction in the price of guava was found associated
with anthracnose infected fruits in all the 3 major market surveyed.
Key word: Guava % fruits anthracnose % Colletothrichum gloeosporioides % market surveyed
the fruits right on the tree prior to ripening. This disease
has made guava production in the region almost
Guava (Psidium guajava) a vitamin C enrich fruit
non-attractive to both farmers and in the home gardens.
plant is grown abundantly throughout western Nigeria.
It has been reported that anthracnose has becomes a
It is an important fruit in many parts of the world where
serious obstacle to guava cultivation, food values and
the climate is suitable for its production . Guava is one
market price are falling and cause a great threat to
of the leading fruits of Mexico . The guava fruits
germplasm preservation in Bangladesh .
contain moisture (85%), proteins (7%) and carbohydrate
The present research was initiated to investigate
(11%) . Guava fruits are processed into guava paste
the etiology of fruit anthracnose, its effects on the
and guava cheese, which are staple sweets and guava,
nutrition and the market value of guava fruit in Ibadan
jelly which is almost universally marketed . It is also
the humid forest of south-western Nigeria.
made into fruit leather  and syrup for use on waffles,
ice cream, puddings and in milkshakes . Guava juice
MATERIALS AND METHODS
and nectar are among the numerous popular canned or
bottled fruit beverages of the Caribbean area .
Survey of fruit anthracnose of guava in Ibadan
In South Africa, a baby-food manufacturer markets
the lowland rain forest zone of western Nigeria was carried
a guava-tapioca product and a guava extract prepared
out in the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Ibadan (7° 20'N,
from small and overripe fruits is used as ascorbic-acid
3° 50'E: 200 mm above sea level) is in a transition zone
enrichment for soft drinks and various foods. Also,
between the humid forest and derived savannah
guavas are mixed with cornmeal and other ingredients to
agro-ecologies of Nigeria. It has a mean annual rainfall of
make breakfast-food flakes . Despite the economic
1200 mm and mean daily temperature of 34°C (max) and
importance of this crop, it’s production is limited by
24°C (min), with over 2 million people.
some biotic factors in humid forest region of Nigeria.
Guava fruit showing symptoms of infection and
Most of the guava fruits produced in the humid forest
the non-infected ones were collected from home gardens
region of south-western Nigeria is associated with fruit
in Apata, Ojo and Moniya all within Ibadan metropolis.
anthracnose. This anthracnose was commonly found on
These were then kept in sterile sampling bags and
Corresponding Author: Dr. N.A. Amusa, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University,
Moor Plantation, P.M.B. 5029, Ibadan, Nigeria
World J. Agric. Sci., 1 (2): 169-172, 2005
brought to the plant pathology laboratory of the institute
Market survey: The market survey of the anthracnose
of Agricultural research and Training/ Obafemi Awolowo
infected guava fruits were conducted in the year 2001 and
University, Moor plantation Ibadan, Nigeria. Three guava
2002, respectively. The price of both anthracnose infected
trees mainly grown in the zone were used for the
guava fruits and the non infected ones were obtained in
experiment in each of the above locations.
3 main markets located at Ojo, Sango and Apata in Ibadan
The sampled fruits were surface sterilized for 3 min
with 1% NaOCL and rinsed in 4 successive changes of
sterile distilled water. The surface-sterilized fruits
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
showing symptoms of canker were then sliced into 2 mm2
pieces, then plated on sterile potato dextrose agar (PDA)
The first observable symptom of the guava fruit
in Petri dishes and incubated for six days under
anthracnose on the field was small, slightly sunken, dark
alternating 12 hr light and dark periods at 26°C. The fungal
or blackens (necrotic lesions) on immature fruits. The
isolates were examined under a stereo binocular
spots often enlarge up to 1-2 cm in diameter and their
microscope. The identity of these fungi was determined
central portion becomes dark black due to the presence of
using cultural, morphological and description in existing
black acervuli. The spots are usually numerous and
publications [5, 6]. Pathogenicity tests were carried
coalesce, leading to the eventual rotting of the fruit. Both
out on the identified isolates as described below.
green and ripe guava fruits were usually affected with
infected fruits often with several necrotic lesions. The
Pathogenicity Test: Six freshly harvested guava fruit
diseased portions are comparatively harder than soft.
intact to the twigs were surface sterilized by swabbing
The symptoms were initially observed in mid-March and
with 70% alcohol and placed in the conical flask
by the end of June over 80% of the fruit on the field
containing sterile water when the distal end of the twigs
were infected. Green unripe fruits once infected undergo
immersed in water. Fruits were inoculated with one single
forced ripening and then dry up rapidly becoming
organism in the way it was done in situ inoculation.
Inoculations fruits were done following the procedures
When the cavity of the fruit is open, the canker was
of Hossain . The inoculated fruits were then placed in
seen to extend to the inner cavity of the fruit. Seeds from
moistened plastic container and incubated at 25°C in
the infected fruits harboured the pathogen.
Gallenkamp incubators for 72 hr. After which observations
The pathogen found mainly associated with the fruit
on the development of infection were made.
anthracnose was C. gloeoisporioides. In Culture, the
The experiments consist of 6 guava fruit intact to the
fungus produced whitish mycelium at the early stage of
twigs inoculated with sterile PDA agar discs and
growth followed by pinkish coloured conidia that
incubated as decribed above. The extent of rot was
grows in a concentric manner on PDA. Black acervuli
determined by measuring the size of infection (mm).
developed from the centre of the plate towards the
periphery. The pathogen was isolated from 95% of the
Nutrient composition: Three guava fruit each from
samples. While the other fungal isolates includes
Apata and Moniya were used for the analysis; at 3 days
Fusarium spp, Pestalotia psidii and Macrophomina
interval for 9 days along with 10 freshly picked fruits.
spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed the presence of C.
The fruits were kept in clean containers, de-seeded and
gloeoisporioides as the pathogen responsible for guava
weighed. The fleshy pulp was cut into pieces and dried
fruit anthracnose in the humid region of south-western
in a hot air oven at 60°C for 3 days. The dried fruits pulp
Nigeria. When re-isolated the fungus was identical to the
was ground into powder. The pulverized samples of the
guava fruit (in-triplicates) and those of the freshly picked
Out of 12 guava trees examined 10 of them were
non-infected fruits were analyzed for moisture,
found associated with severe anthracnose infection and
carbohydrate, ash, crude fibre, proteins and crude fat
on most of the trees over 40% of the fruit produced were
according to AOAC  procedure. The mineral analysis
was also carried out according to standard AACC 
The non-infected guava fruit was significantly higher
method at the livestock analytical laboratory of the
than the anthracnose infected guava fruit in the
institute of Agricultural Research and training
percentage carbohydrates, crude fibre, ash, fat, protein,
Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan,
Ca, Fe and P (Table l). Market survey also revealed that
the anthracnose-infected fruits attracted low prices
World J. Agric. Sci., 1 (2): 169-172, 2005
Table 1: The effect of anthracnose on the nutrient composition of guava in Ibadan Nigeria
Anthracnose infected fruit
Anthracnose infected fruit
Means in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different from one another at p<0.05
Table 2: The effect of fruit anthracnose on the market price of guava fruits in
which mummifies and blackens immature fruits and
three major markets in Ibadan, Nigeria
rots mature fruits .
pathogenicity tests confirmed
market prices (N/10 fruits)
market prices (N/5 fruits)
gloeoisporioides as the pathogen responsible for
guava fruit anthracnose in Ibadan Nigeria. It possible
that insect vectors are involved in dissemination of the
pathogens propergule into the plant during pollination or
Price survey 2001 and 2002
during feeding on the fruits as Adelaja  reported that
fruit fly stings enhance the entry of Colletotrichum spp
(Table 2). A significant reduction in the price of guava
into african star apple fruits by their oviposition on the
was found associated with anthracnose infected fruits in
fruits. The prevalence and the rapid spread of these
all the 3 major market surveyed.
diseases during the peak of the rainy season could be
Collectotrichum spp is an ubiquitous pathogen
due to the humid condition prevailing at that time of
infecting several crops causing anthracnose diseases
the year, which supports the rapid production of conidia.
[10, 11]. Wahid  had earlier on reported that the
C. capcisi has been reported to cause rapid infection
pathogen guava anthracnose has a wide host range,
only during heavy dew or rain fall [14, 15]. Reasons for
which includes mango, pear and apple fruits. The attack of
the above observation might be related to the fact that
fruits by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides inducing
rainfall or rain-splash probably played an important role
anthracnose diseases especially in the rainy season has
in the dispersal of the pathogen’s propagules in the field.
been reported by Morton .
The non-infected guava fruit was found to be
The presence of the pathogen in the guava seeds
significantly higher than the anthracnose infected guava
probably occurred when the fungus penetrates the fruit to
fruit in the percentage carbohydrates, crude fibre, ash,
the seed cavity. Grover and Bansal  reported the
fat, protein, Ca, Fe and P. These differences may be due
isolation of C. capsici from the rotten stems, leaves and
to deterioration caused by the fungus, since the
seeds of C. frutescens.
fungus requires some essential nutrients for growth and
Result revealed that about 80% of the guava plants
survival [3, 16]. Increase in moisture content of the
are infected with anthracnose and over 40% of the fruit
infected guava fruit may be due to increased exposure of
produced on those trees were severely infected. It was
damaged tissues to moisture absorption as a result of
also gathered that those guava plants with no symptoms
deterioration by the fungal pathogen. Samson 
of infections were subject to fungicidal treatments on
reported that the crude protein, carbohydrates, crude
regular basis. The high incidence of guava anthracnose
fat content of the guava fruits were 7, 11 and 17.1%,
observed during the 3 years of field survey indicates
respectively, which is in consonance with the report
that the disease has become a major constraint to guava
of this finding.
production in the lowland humid forest region of
Market survey also revealed that the anthracnose-
south-west Nigeria. In Puerto Rico, up to 50% of the
infected fruits attracted low prices in the 3 major markets
guava crop (mainly from wild trees) was reportedly ruined
surveyed for 2 years. The industrial use of guava fruits in
by the uncontrollable fungus, Glomerella cingulata,
jam, paste, cheese fruit leather and ice cream making
World J. Agric. Sci., 1 (2): 169-172, 2005
etc.which has been reported by Babalola et al.  and
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food products. While its commercial value (Market value)
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as a means of lively hood to peasant farmers the women
Colletotrichum capsici in chilli seeds and its control
and the children will equally be affected. Hence there is
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are resistant or tolerant to fruit anthracnose in the humid
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