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High Crimes Against Humanity Code by Country

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Code by Country for High Crimes Against Humanity put together by Library of Congress Researchers
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2010-004109
LAW LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

MULTINATIONAL REPORT

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY STATUTES AND CRIMINAL CODE PROVISIONS

Argentina

Argentina ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute) on
November 2000.1 The implementing legislation was adopted by Law 26200 of December 13,
2006. (BOLETIN OFICIAL [B.O.] Jan. 9, 2007, available at http://www.infoleg.gov.ar
/infolegInternet/anexos/120000-124999/123921/ norma.htm.)

Law 26200 adopts into domestic legislation the crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the
International Criminal Court (ICC) through the application of renvoi to the provisions of the
Rome Statute. This is a way to avoid disparities that might be created by making a unilateral
definition of the crimes. The Law provides for criminal sanctions that include imprisonment
but does not include any provisions on reparation or rehabilitation of victims. It does include
provisions on cooperation with the ICC regarding arrests, surrender, and judicial assistance in
general.

Armenia

An English translation of the Criminal Code for Armenia (adopted on April 18, 2003) can be
found at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes (last visited Apr. 28,
2010). It provides for the prosecution of crimes against humanity and war crimes, placing
relevant provisions in specific sections of the Code (Chapter 34, arts. 384-397). The Code
subjects to liability all individuals who commit a crime in the country’s territory, and subjects
its own nationals and residents to liability for crimes committed outside the country, if their
act is considered a crime under the laws of Armenia or the country where the crime is
committed (art. 15).

Australia

There are two federal statutes in Australia that refer to proceedings involving crimes against
humanity:


Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth), available at http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/
Legislation/ActCompilation1.nsf/0/5423704BFDAC4386CA2576EA00129CE7/$file/Cri
minalCode1995_WD02.pdf. The relevant provisions in this legislation were inserted by
the International Criminal Court (Consequential Amendments) Act 2002, available at

1 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (of July 17, 1998; entered into force on July 1, 2002), U.N. Doc.
A/CONF.183/9*, United Nations Treaty Collection website, http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/romefra.htm (last visited
Apr. 30, 2010).

Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -2


http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/ActCompilation1.nsf/0/640800730D340
CE5CA256F7100563577/$file/0422002.pdf.

International Criminal Court Act 2002 (Cth), available at http://www.comlaw.
gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/ActCompilation1.nsf/0/FA56268B62FE5347CA256F710056
3077/$file/0412002.pdf.

The Criminal Code Act 1995 provides that Australian courts can have jurisdiction in cases
involving crimes against humanity, even if the offenses are also crimes within the jurisdiction
of the International Criminal Court (Criminal Code Act 1995 § 268.1; see also International
Criminal Court Act 2002, § 3(2).). The relevant offenses are set out in §§ 268.8 to 268.23 of
the Code. Jurisdiction is available whether or not the offense was committed in Australia (Id.
§§ 268.117(1) & 15.4). The Attorney-General must give permission for charges to be brought
under these provisions (Id. §§ 16.1 & 268.121). There can be no double jeopardy where a
person has already been tried for the same offense in the International Criminal Court (Id. §
268.118).

The International Criminal Court Act 2002 sets out the procedural requirements relating to
Australia’s cooperation with, and provision of assistance to, the International Criminal Court.

Austria

Austria cooperates with the International Criminal Court under a Federal Act on Cooperation
with the ICC (Bundesgesetz über die Zusammenarbeit mit dem Internationalen
Strafgerichtshof, BUNDESGESETZBLATT [BGBL.] no. 135/2002, translation of §§ 1-8 available
at
http://www.icrc.org/IHL-NAT.NSF/0/1AB5EA49F1F8B771C1256AFD00 5AB20B), but
has not enacted Austrian criminal provisions on crimes against humanity or jurisdictional
provisions for such crimes. While the Austrian Penal Code (Strafgesetzbuch, Jan. 24, 1974,
BGBl no. 60/1974, as amended) contains no provisions on crimes against humanity, it does
contain a provision on genocide (Id. § 321).

In its jurisdictional provisions, the Austrian Penal Code does not list either genocide or crimes
against humanity as offenses over which Austria would exercise jurisdiction if committed
abroad without any relation to Austria. For genocide, however, the Austrian Supreme Court
found criminal jurisdiction to exist in Austria (Oberster Gerichtshof, decision July 13, 1994,
docket no. 15 Os 99/94, available at http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Justiz/
JJR_19940713_OGH0002_0150OS00099_9400000_003/JJR_19940713_OGH0002_0150OS
00099_9400000_003.html) on the basis of section 65(1), number 2, of the Austrian Penal
Code, which establishes Austrian criminal jurisdiction over acts committed abroad by
perpetrators who were apprehended in Austria and who, due to existing circumstances, cannot
be prosecuted in the place of commission. The Austrian decision was also based on Article 6
of the United Nations Genocide Convention, which requires the member states to exercise
such jurisdiction (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,
G.A. Res. 260 (III) A (Dec. 9, 1948,), available at http://www.preventgenocide.org/
law/convention/text.htm).


Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -3


Azerbaijan

An English translation of the Criminal Code for Azerbaijan (adopted Sept. 30, 1999) can be
found at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes (last visited Apr. 28,
2010). It provides for the prosecution of crimes against humanity and war crimes, placing
relevant provisions in specific sections of the Code (Chapter 16, arts. 100-113). The Code
subjects to liability all individuals who commit a crime in the country’s territory (art. 11.1),
and subjects its own nationals and residents to liability for crimes committed outside the
country, if their act is considered a crime under the laws of Azerbaijan or the country where
the crime is committed. Azerbaijan extends the jurisdiction of its Criminal Code to all
individuals present in Azerbaijan, regardless of the fact of where a crime against humanity has
been committed (art. 12.3).

Belgium

In Belgium, crimes against humanity are governed by the Law of June 16, 1993, as amended
in August 2003, on the Punishment of Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law
(Service Public Fédéral, Code Pénal, http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/loi/loi.htm (scroll down
to Code Penal, then Recherche, then Liste, choose No. 2 and click on Détail, and scroll to
TITRE Ibis)). The Law has been incorporated into the Penal Code under Articles 136bis to
136octies. Article 136bis defines genocide. Article 136ter lists acts that if organized and
committed against a section of the civilian population become crimes against humanity. They
include, among others, murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, torture, rape,
disappearance of persons, apartheid, and other similar acts intentionally causing very serious
suffering or grave encroachment on the victims’ physical integrity or mental health. Article
136quater provides that war crimes listed in the Geneva Conventions and Protocols and in
Article 8, § 2(f), of the Rome Statute are also governed by the present Law if they encroach
upon the protection and property guarantees provided by these international instruments.
Crimes against humanity are generally punished by life imprisonment.

Under Article 6 of the Criminal Investigation Code, Belgian courts have jurisdiction over
Belgian citizens and persons having their principal residence in Belgium who committed
crimes against humanity outside Belgian territory. (Id.)

Bosnia-Herzegovina

An English translation of the Criminal Code for Bosnia-Herzegovina (entered into force on
Mar. 1, 2003) can be found at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-
codes (last visited Apr. 28, 2010). It provides for the prosecution of crimes against humanity
and war crimes, placing relevant provisions in specific sections of the Code (Chapter 17, arts.
171-172). The Code subjects to liability all individuals who commit a crime in the country’s
territory, and subjects its own nationals and residents to liability for crimes committed outside
the country, if their act is considered a crime under the laws of Bosnia-Herzegovina or the
country where the crime is committed. The Code provides for additional jurisdiction over
crimes committed by anyone outside of the country against Bosnia-Herzegovina’s state

Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -4


interests or for cases provided for in international agreements irrespective of the laws of the
state where the crime was committed (art. 12).

Brazil

On September 25, 2002, the Brazilian government issued Decree No. 4,388 (Decreto No.
4,388 de 25 de Setembro de 2002, Brazilian Presidency website, available at
http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/2002/D4388.htm), which promulgated the Rome
Statute. The Rome Statute had been previously approved by the Brazilian Congress on June 6,
2002, through Legislative Decree No. 112 and, in accordance with Article 126 of the Rome
Statute, entered into force in Brazil on September 1, 2002.

In regard to the incorporation of the Rome Statute into the country’s criminal laws, Brazil has
yet to amend its Penal Code to comport with the provisions of the Rome Statute.

Bulgaria

An English translation of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Bulgaria (adopted in April
1968, amended as of May 2005) can be found at
http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes (last visited Apr. 28, 2010).
It provides for the prosecution of crimes against humanity and war crimes, placing relevant
provisions in specific sections of the Code (Chapter 14, arts. 407-418). The Code subjects to
liability all individuals who commit a crime in the country’s territory, and subjects its own
nationals and residents to liability for crimes committed outside the country, if their act is
considered a crime under the laws of Bulgaria or of the country where the crime was
committed (art. 4). Article 6(1) states that the Code applies to anyone who has committed a
crime against “peace and mankind affecting interests of another country or foreign citizens.”
(Id.)

Cambodia

There is a Cambodian statute that defines crimes against humanity. However, it only deals
with crimes committed during the period from April 17, 1975, to January 6, 1979. (Law on
the Establishment of Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia for the Prosecution
of Crimes Committed During the Period of Democratic Kampuchea, NS/RKM/0801/12
(2001), as amended by NS/RKM/1004/006 (2004), art. 5, unofficial English translation
available at http://www.adh-geneva.ch/RULAC/pdf_state/ECCC-Law-as-amended-27-Oct-
2004-Eng.pdf.)

Other statutes that deal with crimes against humanity were not located. Note that the Law
Library does not have a specialist with Khmer language skills on staff.

Canada

The Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act, 2000 S.C. ch. 24, http://laws-

Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -5


lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/C-45.9/index.html (last visited Apr. 27, 2010), applies to all crimes
against humanity committed within Canada. (Id. § 4.) For wrongs committed outside the
country, the Act provides that:

A person who is alleged to have committed [a crime against humanity outside the country] may be
prosecuted for that offense if

(a) at the time the offense is alleged to have been committed,

(i) the person was a Canadian citizen or was employed by Canada in a civilian or military
capacity,

(ii) the person was a citizen of a state that was engaged in an armed conflict against Canada, or
was employed in a civilian or military capacity by such a state,

(iii) the victim of the alleged offence was a Canadian citizen, or

(iv) the victim of the alleged offense was a citizen of a state that was allied with Canada in an
armed conflict; or

(b) after the time the offense is alleged to have been committed, the person is present in Canada.
[Id. § 8.]

Colombia

Colombia ratified the Rome Statute on June 5, 2002 (DIARIO OFICIAL DE COLOMBIA, June 7,
2002). At the time of the deposit of the instrument of ratification (available at
http://www.secretaria senado.gov.co/senado/basedoc/ley/2002/ley_0742_2002.html
(last
visited Apr. 28, 2010)), Colombia made a reservation to the treaty, (available at
http://www.iccnow.org/ documents/Colombia_DeclarationRatificationAug2002_sp.pdf (last
visited Apr. 27, 2010)).

Although Colombia has not adopted any specific law implementing the Rome Statute, the
following provisions of the Criminal Code are applicable to crimes against humanity:

• Genocide: arts. 101-102
• Forced disappearance: arts. 165-167
• Kidnapping: arts. 168-171
• Arbitrary detention: arts. 174-177
• Torture: arts. 178-179
• Forced displacement: arts. 180-181
• Crimes against people and assets protected by international humanitarian law: arts.
135-164
• Crimes of terrorism: arts. 340-348
(Text of Code available at http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/senado/basedoc/
ley/2000/ley_0599_2000_pr003.html#101 (last visited Apr. 27, 2010).)


Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -6




Congo, Democratic Republic of the

The Democratic Republic of the Congo is not a party to the Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court.

The Criminal Code of the country was approved and became effective on November 30, 2004.
It does not include any reference to punishing crimes against humanity. (Code Penal
Congolais, JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE LA RÉPUBLICQUE DÉMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO, Nov. 30,
2004, available at http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/JO/2004/JO.30. 11.2004.pdf.)

The Constitution of February 18, 2006, however, reaffirms the country’s support for the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international documents to which it has
adhered. Article 16 of the Constitution states, “[t]he human person is sacred and the state has
the obligation to respect and protect it.” (Constitution, JOURNAL OFFICIEL DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE
DÉMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO, Feb. 18, 2006, available at http://www.leganet.cd/
Legislation/JO/2006/JO.18.02.2006.pdf.)

Congo (Republic of) [Brazzaville]

The Republic of Congo (Brazzaville) has adopted Law No. 8-98 of October 31, 1998, on
Defining and Repressing Genocide, War Crimes, and Crimes Against Humanity. The
following is a brief translation of a part of the text:

Chapter 1. On Genocide

Article 1. The act of committing or executing a plan for the destruction of national,
ethnic or racial, or religious groups or any other group consists of one of the
following acts:

• killing all members of the group;
• attacking the physical or mental integrity of the members of the group;
• intentional suppression of the group; and
• forced transfer of the children of the group.

Article 2. Genocide is punishable by death.

Chapter 2. War Crimes

Crimes in violation of the Geneva Convention of August 12, 1949, are punishable
by life imprisonment or death.

Chapter 3. Crimes Against Humanity


Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -7


Article 6. Crimes against humanity are punishable by death and consist of a
systematic and generalized attack against a civilian population resulting in:
• murder;
• extermination;
• enslavement of the population.
• deportation or forced transfer of the population;
• imprisonment or other forms of forced deprivation of liberty;
• torture; or
• rape, sexual slavery, or prostitution.

(Text in the vernacular published by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of the Congo,
Codes d’Audience, Recueil de Codes et Textes Usuels (Brazzaville, 2001) (copy attached).

Costa Rica

Costa Rica promulgated Law No. 8272 in 2002, amending Article 7 and adding Article 378
and 379 to the Penal Code. Article 379 addresses crimes against humanity. The English and
vernacular texts are found at the following website: http://www.nottingham.ac.
uk/shared/shared_hrlcicju/Costa_Rica/ (last visited Apr. 27, 2010). Article 378 addresses war
crimes. The amended Article 7 states:

Whatever provisions are applicable in the place where the punishable action occurred and
regardless of the nationality of the person responsible, any person who commits … acts
of genocide, … or commits any other punishable acts contrary to human rights and
International Humanitarian Law under any treaties signed by Costa Rica or under this
Code shall be liable for punishment in accordance with the Laws of Costa Rica. (Id.)

Croatia

The Criminal Code of Croatia (entered into force on Jan. 1, 1998, amended as of July. 15,
2003), in unofficial translation, can be found online through the website of the publisher of the
official gazette at http://www.vsrh.hr/CustomPages/ Static/HRV/Files/Legislation__Criminal-
Code.pdf (last visited Apr. 28, 2010). Article 157A of the Code prosecutes crimes against
humanity. The Code subjects to liability all individuals who committed a crime in the
country’s territory, and subjects its own nationals and residents to liability for crimes
committed outside the country, if their act is considered a crime under the laws of Croatia or
the country where the crime was committed. The Code provides for additional jurisdiction
over crimes committed by anyone outside of the country against Croatia’s state interests or for
cases provided for in international agreements, irrespective of the laws of the state where the
crime was committed (art. 14).

Denmark

Denmark adopted the Act on the International Criminal Court on May 16, 2001 (available at
http://www.adh-geneva.ch/RULAC/pdf_state/2001-Act-on-the-ICC.pdf (in English

Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -8


translation) (last visited Apr. 28, 2010)), and, as a 2006 Human Rights Watch report points
out, Denmark prosecutes the domestic law equivalents of international crimes. As to
jurisdiction, Human Rights Watch states:

Section 8 (5) of the Danish Penal Code … provides for universal jurisdiction over crimes
that Denmark has an obligation to prosecute under an international convention. This
includes torture under the Convention against Torture … and grave breaches of the
Geneva Conventions. … In addition, section 8 (6) provides Danish courts with universal
jurisdiction over any crime with a sentence of more than one year’s imprisonment, where
the crime is also a crime in the territorial state and the suspect cannot be extradited to the
territorial state. … Due to a lack of implementing legislation, all complaints are
investigated, prosecuted and eventually punished on the basis of crimes as defined in the
Danish Penal Code.

The Danish Justice Ministry reportedly prepared a White Paper in 2007 on Danish criminal
jurisdiction (Dansk straffemyndighed, Betænkning nr. 148 , available at
http://jm.schultzboghandel.dk/ upload/microsites/jm/ebooks/bet1488/bet/hele.html (in Danish;
last visited Apr. 28, 2010) that “included recommendations that would make it easier for
Danish courts to prosecute crimes committed abroad, especially international crimes.”
(Denmark, RULAC database, http://www.adh-geneva.ch/RULAC/national_ legislation.
php?id_state=55 (last visited Apr. 27, 2010).) It is not readily apparent whether any action has
been taken on these recommendations, however.

Denmark also has a statute on genocide, Danish Law No. 132 of 29 of April 1955 (Law
Concerning Punishment of Genocide [Lov nr. 132 af 29.04.1955 om straf for folkedrab],
available at http://www.prevent genocide.org/dk/folkedrab1955.htm (in Danish and in English
translation) (last visited Apr. 28, 2010)).

Note that the Law Library does not have a specialist with Danish language skills on staff

Ecuador

Ecuador ratified the Statute of Rome (SR) on January 17, 2002 (REGISTRO OFICIAL, Jan. 31,
2002, available at http://www.derechoecuador.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=
view&id=231&Itemid=280#anchor428667).

The Political Constitution (REGISTRO
OFICIAL, Oct. 20, 2008, available
at
http://www.derechoecuador.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4742&Itemi
d=498#Derechosdelibertad) includes provisions against torture, forced disappearance, and
cruel treatment (id. art. 66.3.c). It also provides that genocide, crimes against humanity, war
crimes, and forced disappearance will not be subject to any statute of limitations (id. art. 80).

A recent Law amending the Criminal Code was adopted on April 27, 2009, to include the
crime of genocide, incorporating the provisions of Article 6 of the Rome Statute, and
establishing criminal sanctions of from six to twenty-five years of imprisonment for those
crimes (REGISTRO OFICIAL, Apr. 27, 2009, Global Legal Information Network website,
http://content.glin.gov/summary/221978.).

Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -9





Estonia

An English translation of the Criminal Code of Estonia (entered into force on Sept. 1, 2003,
amended as of March 15, 2007) can be found at http://www.legislationline.
org/documents/section/criminal-codes (last visited Apr. 28, 2010). It provides for the
prosecution of crimes against humanity and war crimes, placing relevant provisions in specific
sections of the Code (Chapter 18. Div. 2, arts. 89, 90). The Code subjects to liability all
individuals who commit a crime in the country’s territory, and subjects its own nationals and
residents to liability for crimes committed outside the country, if their act is considered a
crime under the laws of Estonia or of the country where the crime was committed (art. 6).

European Union

At the European Union level, the following items of legislation deal with crimes against
humanity:

• Council Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA of 28 November 2008 on Combating
Certain Forms and Expressions of Racism and Xenophobia by Means of Criminal Law
(2008 OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION [OJ] (L328) 55, EUROPA website,
available at
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/ justice freedom_security/
combating_discrimination/l33178_en.htm). The Decision requires Member States to
adopt legislation by November 2010 to punish intentional conduct that publicly
condones, denies, or grossly trivializes crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, and
war crimes as defined in Articles 6, 7, and 8 of the Statute of the International Criminal
Court directed against a group of persons defined by race, color, religion, or descent and
carried out in a manner likely to incite hatred against such a group. (Id. Art. 1(c).)

• Council Decision 2003/335/JHA of 8 May 2003 on the Investigation and Prosecution of
Crimes of Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes (2003 OJ (L118) 12,
EUROPA website, available at http://europa.eu/legislation _summaries/justice_freedom_
security/judicial_cooperation_in_criminal_matters/l16005_en.htm). Member States are
required to take measures to ensure that their enforcement authorities are informed about
facts that indicate that an applicant for a residence permit has committed genocide,
crimes against humanity, or war crimes, as defined by the Rome Statute; and also to
ensure that Member States assist each other in the investigation and prosecution of such
crimes.

• Council Decision 2002/494/JHA of 13 June 2002 Setting Up a European Network of
Contact Points in Respect of Persons Responsible for Genocide, Crimes Against
Humanity and War Crimes (2002 OJ (L167) 1, EURLEX website, available at http://eur-
lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri= CELE X :32002D0494:EN:HTML). The
Decision requires that Member States establish contact points within their territories for
the exchange of information concerning the investigation of genocide, crimes against

Crimes Against Humanity Provisions – April 2010 The Law Library of Congress -10


humanity, and war crimes and also inform the General Secretariat of the Council of the
EU regarding the designated bodies.

Finland

The Finnish Penal Code, amended to include Law 212/2008, Laki rikoslain muuttamisesta
[Law Amending the Criminal Code] of May 1, 2008, is available in unofficial translation from
the Finnish Ministry of Justice, at http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1889
/en18890039.pdf (last visited Apr. 26, 2010). Chapter 11 covers war crimes and crimes
against humanity; other subsections were also amended in 2008. Under section 7 of Chapter 1
of the Code, Finnish law applies to international crimes if they are acts that contravene
agreements to which Finland is a party.

France

In France, crimes against humanity are governed by Book II, Title I, of the Penal Code,
entitled “Crimes against Humanity and the Human Species.” The original provisions were
enacted in December 1964; they were last amended by Law 2004-800 of August 6, 2004.
Subtitle I specifically addresses crimes against humanity: genocide (art. 211-1); other crimes
against humanity, including deportation, enslavement, systematic practice of summary
executions, and other additional offenses (arts. 212-1 to 212-3); and common provisions (arts.
213-1 to 213-5). Subtitle II governs eugenic practices and human reproductive cloning (arts.
214-1 to 214-4 and 215-1 to 215-4).

Crimes against humanity are punishable by life imprisonment. They are not subject to any
statute of limitations. French law also recognizes the criminal liability of legal entities in a
large number of offenses including crimes against humanity. France extends the reach of
French criminal law to offenses committed outside its territory by a French or foreign national
when the victim is a French national (Penal Code, art. 113-7).

The provisions listed above may be found in English on the French government legal website,
at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr. Click on the British flag next to “Les codes en vigeur,” then
on “Penal Code,” then on “First Part: Enacted Parts: Arts. 111-1 to 727-2,” and finally on
“Book II” to reach the articles listed above.

Georgia

An English translation of the Criminal Code of Georgia (adopted on February. 15, 2000) is
available at the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees website, at http://www.
unhcr.org/refworld/docid/404c5dc11.html (last visited Apr. 28, 2010). It provides for the
prosecution of crimes against humanity and war crimes, placing relevant provisions in specific
sections of the Code (Chapter 47, arts. 404-413). The Code subjects to liability all individuals
who commit a crime in the country’s territory (art. 4), and subjects its own nationals and
residents to liability for crimes committed outside the country, if their act is considered a
crime under the laws of Georgia or the country where the crime was committed (art. 5).


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