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HPV, the Human Papilloma Virus

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Having a talk with your ten, eleven year old child about STD's (sexually transmitted diseases) may not be very comfortable, or even seem relevant at that age. Think again. These following statistics should enlighten any parent out of denial. The CDC chlamydia statistics for 2007: 13,629 cases in children 10 to 14 years old, the CDC gonorrhea statistics for 2007: 3,958 cases in children 10 to 14 years old, the CDC syphilis statistics for 2007: 13 cases in children 10 to 14 years old. This makes this talk one of the most important talks you will have with your child. "Tweens" are less likely to use any form of protection from disease, or pregnancy, particularly if they don't have an adult (preferably parent) they feel they can discuss such matters with. This is the talk that may save his/her life. There are many STD's out there with numerous consequences. I chose HPV since it is so widespread, but yet so many people haven't heard of it. A lot of people who heard of it, still do not know the consequences of it. The American Cancer Society states that a patient can only get cervical cancer if they had been infected by HPV at some point in their lives. However, not all HPV infections result in cervical cancer, as there are 150 different types of HPV. Only thirty of them are of the STD type. Out of that, 90% will be cleared naturally by the body's immune system within two years. HPV causes little or no symptoms. The HPV virus that causes genital warts is the HPV that is considered low risk for cervical cancer. While remaining silent in outward symptoms, it causes abnormal cell growth. It is the "invisible" kind, the one with no symptoms at all, that causes cancer. The only way to detect these forms of HPV is with a pap smear. There is no known test for detection in males. As of now, there are an estimated amount of 20,000,000 Americans infected with this STD, with an estimated projection of over 6,000,000 new HPV infections every year. There is scientific research that has shown that HPV interferes with some of our cell functions. One of these interrupted functions is the one that blocks abnormal cell growth and blocks the body's natural defense against tumors from growing. Cervical cancer is the top cancer caused by HPV. It is estimated that over 11,000 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer this year, leading to over 4,000 deaths. At one time cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Between the years of 1955 and 1992 however, the death rates declined by 74%. Doctors believe is because of the use of pap smears, making early detection and treatment available. There are also other cancers that can be caused by HPV. CDC reports in 2008, 3,460 women diagnosed with vulvar cancer; 2,210 women diagnosed with vaginal and other female genital cancers. Men diagnosed with penile and other male genital cancers caused by HPV are estimated at 1,250. As for those diagnosed with anal cancer, in 2008, due to HPV, the numbers are 3,050 women and 2,020 men. One rare complication of HPV infection, is that of a mother passing the infection to her child during childbirth. This is called RRP, which stands for Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis. This causes the newborn to develop warts in his/her throat and/or voice box. This typically causes voice disorders, and occasionally breathing issues. There is no known cure for this, however there are some steps doctors can take to soothe the symptoms. There are two different surgical measures currently employed by doctors to control RRP. A CO2 laser is one way, a microdebrider and "cold steel instruments" for removal of the papillomas is another. During either surgery, doctors remove as much of the growths as they can. This is necessary if there are breathing problems. There is a downside to surgery though, as sometimes it causes regrowth by aggravating non-active virus areas. The researchers are working hard developing other techniques. One new method being researched is called Pulse Dye Laser therapy which cuts off the blood supply to the papillomas. It is too early to know the long term result of this procedure though. Extreme caution needs to be taken when considering surgical measures, as its possible to cause permanent scarring, and damage to healthy tissue. There are other medical interventions used following surgery. Hormonal therapy changes the tissue environment, causing a hindrance to RRP growth. Immunotherapeutic therapy can help the patients immune system to fight against the infection. Anti-viral medications counters the viral infection. Anti-tumor medications eliminates the cells that are rapidly growing and forming the viral tumors. RRP patients receiving the mumps vaccine appear to have improvement but the reason is still unknown. Although the surgeries are risky, if RRP is ignored and not treated with what's available, it could lead to airway blockage. The vaccine against HPV does not guard against all HPV viral infections. It guards against four types of HPV, two of which are known to cause cancer. It is estimated that about thirty percent of cervical cancers won't be stopped by the vaccine. That means seventy percent will, which is a tremendous step. This is why all girls/women should be vaccinated. Just as there is no known test for the male population, it is not known whether the vaccine will stop the viral infection, or cancers it causes in males. It is unnecessary to get tested for HPV before receiving the vaccine since there are so many different types of HPV, if the patient is positive for HPV, it may be the HPV that is not covered by the vaccine. It is recommended only for girls and women aged eleven through twenty six. More extensive testing and research needs to be done before it can be said to help women of other ages. There is no other known protection from HPV, except abstinence. Even condoms can not completely protect a person from HPV, as other areas, besides what's covered by the condom can be infected. In conclusion HPV is an extremely widespread STD, and any steps taken to help stop its spread is important. With the tremendous drop in deaths from cervical cancer due to the use of pap smears, we can now do even better by preventing some HPV infections themselves. Since it is so widespread, it is important that every female who is allowed medically to receive the vaccine be vaccinated. The reason for this is the same as any other vaccination programs, which is when everyone is protected, there is a better chance at slowing down or even ending the disease or infection that the vaccine is for. The only way to have a guarantee of being completely HPV free, is complete abstinence of sex. That's pretty unrealistic because that also includes people in a monogamous or even married state of a relationship. The reason for this is since most cases are silent, you can be in a monogamous relationship for years, and still catch it from your unknowing partner. Since its typically silent in males, and there is no test or vaccine for males, they could be carrying the infection from a previous partner. Males can catch it from their monogamous wife if they didn't get their regular pap smears, since again, it can be completely silent, and carried for years without her knowledge. It is also very important for females to continue getting their pap smears even after vaccination since it guards from only four forms of HPV.
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STDS: The Disease Bandits that
Steal Good Health, Great Sex and Long Life
Most young girls not only dream of growing up to have careers but also to become wives and mothers.
Many of these dreamers will find their visions erased by the silent epidemic of sexually transmitted
diseases. STDs are the unseen social bandits that ruin lives.
Chlamydia is the stealth disease that whisks away fertility and leaves young women with those
unrealized dreams of being mothers. For those who are unaware of the effects of this disease and how
rampant it spreads and the problems it causes, here's a brief description. Chlamydia is caused by
bacteria that infects and spreads through the genitals as a result of sexual contact. The victim doesn't
know there has been a Chlamydia invasion because initially there are no signs or symptoms that raise
concerns. This common STD infects approximately 4 million people in the United States each year and
is the most prevalent of all the diseases affecting teenagers brought about by sexual contact.
Take a Look at EL Paso STD Testing
Sexually active men and women should be screened for chlamydia, especially if an individual has had
multiple sexual partners or becomes sexually involved with someone who has been sexually active with
more than one person in a short period of time. These are the people most likely to contract this
sexually transmitted disease. The doctor may take a sample of cervical discharge from the women for
culture or antigen testing at the time of a routine Pap test. Men are tested by a sample from the urethra
obtained by insertion of a swab into the end of the penis. A urine test can also provide evidence of
Physicians usually prescribe antibiotics such as azithromycin (Zithromax), doxycycline or
erythromycin for several days. Consequently the infection most often resolves from one to two weeks,
during which time the infected person should refrain from sexual intercourse. The sexual partner
should also be treated, even if the individual has no signs or symptoms of the disease, because it can be
passed back and forth, continuing to infect the partners.
How is Chlamydia prevented. The most obvious way is abstinence, however condom use, limit sex
partners and getting regular screenings are ways of keeping from contracting chlamydia and other
Gonorrhea, also called "the clap" is another STD that is common in many young adults, although it
does affect people across all age groups. Like chlamydia it is contracted through sexual contact and
doesn't always have obvious symptoms at the beginning for women. Men, however, may have pain
upon urination or a penile discharge. Untreated gonorrhea can lead to epididymitis in men, affecting the
testicles and leading to infertility. Women may get bleeding between periods, painful urination and
vaginal discharge. Untreated, gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which causes
infertility in women. During pregnancy the bacteria can be spread to the baby. Treatment and
prevention of gonorrhea is similar to that for chlamydia including antibiotics for treatment and condom
use, limiting sex partners and having screening as ways of preventing the disease.
Another prevalent sexually transmitted disease is genital herpes. This highly contagious STD is usually
spread through sexual contact, and very occasionally from the same virus responsible for cold sores.

The STD variety is called herpes simplex virus-2 or HSV-2.
Genital herpes is an STD like many others and"silent," causing no initial symptoms. Some people may
have blisters and ulcers, however. Unlike other STDs that can be cured with antibiotics, victims of
genital herpes remain infected for life. It is spread through direct contact, not just sexual intercourse but
also through kissing or skin-to-skin contact and is often transmitted by sexual partners who are
unaware they are infected. The disease affects approximately 45 million people or one out of five of the
total adolescent and adult population of the United States, according to WebMD. Furthermore it is
increasing in prevalence during the past 20 years. Complications can include fatal infections in infants
at the time of birth, infertility, and possibly may play a role in the spread of HIV, the virus causing
AIDS. It can make people more susceptible to HIV infection. Like other STDs there are medications
that can be taken to help heal sores, alleviate discomfort, and prevent outbreaks of genital herpes.
Stealth STDs also include trichomoniasis, a common infection, again where there may not be initial
signs or symptoms. Some men may have a mild discharge or pain after urination. Women, however,
have a yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. Sexual intercourse can be uncomfortable
during a flare-up. Complications for women include an increase of susceptibility to HIV infection if
exposed to the virus and an increased chance of consequently passing on the infection to the sex
Trichomoniasis can also cause problems during pregnancy, causing babies to be born early or under
normal birth weight. Diagnosis of this STD is done by a laboratory test and physical examination of
both the male and female sex partners. It is a curable disease with the use of prescribed drugs given by
mouth, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Prevention of trichomoniasis is done through abstinence or
having long-term monogamous relationships with non-infected partners. The use of male condoms can
reduce the risk of transmission of the disease.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the name given to virus infecting the skin, of which there are more
than 70 different types. Many of these can cause warts on hands or feet, while others cause warts on the
genitals. Genital warts are among the STDs that are common and can be serious because they can lead
to abnormal cell changes and potentially cause cancer. Diagnosis for women is done through a Pap
smear. It is important for all women to be screened for the disease since HPV is considered to be the
most common sexually transmitted virus given the estimate of 75% of sexually active Americans will
have it at some time in their lives. Only a small number of women infected with HPV will develop cell
changes that could lead to cancer, but early detection is very important for effective treatment. Men are
screened clinically by a physician's visual inspection to check for lesions or warts. While there is no
treatment to eliminate the disease, there are treatments for the complications of the disease itself, which
is one of the principal reasons for both men and women to have screenings.
HIV/AIDS, once thought to infect only gay men, is a serious STD that can cause serious complications
and death. The Centers for Disease Control offers comprehensive information about this disease, given
its range of complications and insidious consequences. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus
which can cause AIDS. It attacks the immune system, creating opportunities for serious medical
problems such as pneumonia and other viruses to attack the body. It is not spread by casual contact, as
some people still believe, but instead is a sexually transmitted disease or STD because it develops from
sexual contact. It also can be transmitted through shared needles used for transfusions or administration
of drugs legal or illegal or through breastfeeding. Because the complications for AIDS can be
particularly grave, there are support groups, community information forums and special organizations
to provide information and help to find a cure for this dreaded STD. But until then, the Centers for

Disease Control (CDC) cautions those who have had multiple sex partners or who have been involved
in needle exchange should be tested. Presently there is no cure for AIDS, although like genital warts
there are medications to relieve complications.
Syphilis is an extremely serious STD. Like other sexually transmitted diseases syphilis is caused by
sexual contact. It can also, however, be transmitted through touching the blood or sores of an infected
person. Although in the very early stages there may not be symptoms, after the first 10 days or so sores
can develop that can spread into the blood and cause many problems. A rash may follow the sores,
followed by fever, swollen lymph glands, sores in the mouth, fatigue and body aches. The disease can
then become latent, producing no symptoms, and then resume to attack the brain, heart or spinal cord as
well as possibly other organs. This is the fourth stage of syphilis which is called tertiary syphilis. Like
other STDs it is prevented by abstinence, the use of condoms, and the limitation of sexual partners.
STDs affect men and women of all ages throughout life. Because of the seriousness of the
complications of these diseases it is important for all sexually active individuals to have regular
screenings and to be informed about the signs and symptoms of these diseases. For the young woman,
ready to step out and realize the goal of having children, for the young man who wants a family, for the
older couple who want a satisfactory retirement free from ongoing health concerns, for these people
and more, education and information are critical. STDs can be frightful at first, but there are diagnoses,
treatments and support for them so that the victim can receive help along the way. If knowledge is
power, as the saying goes, than having information can potentially save lives and dollars as well,
reducing the costs of health care, and promoting good health for everyone.

HPV, the Human Papilloma Virus



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