Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 1 (3): 109-110, 2007
Hydrometra and Endometrial Hyperplasia in a Cat with Follicular Cyst
M. R?fat SALMANO?LU2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Atatürk, 25700/ERZURUM-
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ankara, 06110/ANKARA-
Received : 10 January 2007
Accepted : 17 February 2007
A cat was admitted to the clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara
University, with the signs of colic, abdominal tension, polydipsia and weakness. According to anamnesis (by the client), the cat
was 8-month-old and had mated 30 days prior to the clinical examination. Although the ultrasonographic findings showed anechoic
areas in the uterus, no signs of expected pregnancy were found. The patient was received operation because of large anechoic
areas determined by ultrasound and high abdominal tension. Histopathological examination of the uterus revealed hydrometra and
endometrial hyperplasia together with follicular cyst in the left ovarium.
Key words: Cat, Endometrial Hyperplasia, Hydrometra, Follicular Cyst
Hydrometra and mucometra (defined as the accumulation
of non-inflammatory, clear to slightly cloudy, watery to viscid,
sterile fluid in the uterine lumen) occur occasionally in the
cat. Impatency of the vulva, vagina, cervix or uterus resulting
from congenital anomaly, neoplasia, inflammation and scarring
or accidental ligation leads to hydrometra and mucometra.
The volume of the fluid in the uterine lumen may be as high
as 500 ml . Therefore, the uterus could be thin-walled .
Normal pregnancy may be distinguished from hydrometra and
mucometra by monitoring the presence of a fluid-filled uterus in
the absence of a foetus(es) with the use of B-mode ultrasound
Ovarian cysts have been reported to be common in the cat
and their frequency may to increase with age. Follicular cysts
Figure 1. Ultrasonographic view of a large anechoic zone in
that arise from mature or atretic follicles are reported to be the Figure 1: Ultrasonographic
view of a large anechoic zone in the uterus
most common type. However, their aetiology in spontaneous
V.U.: Vesica urineria
diseases is unknown .
The cat was premedicated with atrophine sulphate (0.04
mg/kg, SC) and xylazine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg, IM). General
A cat was referred to the clinic of the Department of
anesthesia was induced using ketamine hydrochloride (10
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
mg/kg, IM). Ovariohysterectomy was performed at the left
Ankara University, with the signs of colic, abdominal tension,
fossa paralumbalis. The uterus presented a bilateral increase
polydipsia and depression for 7 days. According to anamnesis,
in the dimensions of the horns (right and left: 17.0 and 13.0
the cat was 8-month-old and had mated 30 days prior to the
cm in lenght and 4 cm in diameter both, respectively). Abel,
clinical examination. During the examination, the cat was
 observed a uterine horn with a diameter of 4.5 cm in a cat
in good physical condition (with positive appetite) and its
with hydrometra. The uterus was preserved in 10% formaline
rectal temperature was within normal values (38.5 oC).
until histopathological examination. Following the operation,
Ultrasonographic examination revealed anechoic areas in the
cefazolin sodium (125 mg twice a day for 5 days, IM) was
uterus, but no signs of any pregnancy (expected to be 30-day
given. A liquid diet was supplied for 3 days.
old) were detected [Figure 1].
B. Polat and M. R. Salmano?lu / JABS, 1 (3): 109-110, 2007
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Eight days after the operation, the skin sutures were
. Johnston SD, Kustritz MVR, Olson PNS. 2001. Disorders
removed and a complete recovery (of the clinical sings) was
of the Feline Uterus and Uterine Tubes. In: Canine
and Feline Theriogenology, W.B. Saunders Company,
According to the histopathological examinations by a
Philadelphia, pp. 463-471.
private Pathology laboratory (Buyuk Ankara Laboratuvarlar
. Smith MC. 1986. Anestrus, Pseudopregnancy and Cystic
Grubu, Ankara-TR; dated on 26/03/2005 with protocol
Follicles. In: Current Therapy in Theriogenology, W.B.
number 3187), the uterus had expanded cystic glands in
the endometrium. In the myometrium, there was excessive
Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp. 585-586.
enlargement in blood vessels containing erythrocytes in their
. Arthur GH, Noakes DE, Pearson H, Parkinson T. 1996.
lumen. A cystic mass with a single luminal surface and thin
Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, 7th edition, W.
wall covered with flattened epithelial cells were detected in
Saunders Company, London, pp. 453-467.
the left ovarium. Although progesterone was reported to play
. Abel DL. 1990. Endometrial cysts and polyps in a cat
a major role in the aetiology of hydrometra in various species
with hydrometra. Feline Practice. 18: 19-23.
, Payan-Carreira et al.,  observed a granulosa cell tumour
in one of the ovaries in a bitch with hydrometra. In the latter
. Payan-Carreria R, Pina J, Costa M, Seixas F, Pires MA.
study, there was a high oestrogen concentration of sera that was
2006. Oestrogen receptors in a case of hydrometra in a
presumably leading to fluid accumulation in the uterus. The
bitch. Veterinary Record. 158: 487-489.
fluid produced as a consequence of this chronic stimulation of
. Biolatti B, Castagnaro M, Bollo E, Aprino S. 1994.
the oestrogen receptors inevitably caused the enlargement of the
Genital lesions following long-term administration of
uterine horns. In other species, hydrometra has been associated
clenbuterol in female pigs. Veterinary Pathology. 31: 82-
with chronic stimulation of oestrogen receptors by exogenous
Granulosa tumours are one of the possible sources of
endogenous oestrogens [1-5]. Undoubtedly, the follicular cysts
are also one of the other major sources. Therefore, we presumed
that the follicular cyst in one of the ovaries may have played a
role in the development of hydrometra, through the stimulation
of the oestrogen receptors.
The present study reports a case of cystic endometrial
hyperplasia and hydrometra with follicular cyst in an 8-month-
old cat following ovariohysterectomy and histopathological
examination of the uterus.