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Improved Indirect Rotor Flux Oriented Control of PWM inverter fed Induction Motor Drives

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In today’s high-power electrical drives using vector controlled induction machines, voltage source inverters (VSI) based on PWM technology and current source inverters (CSI) based on based on PWM technology are the most important alternatives for motor supply (cyclo-converters being confined to very low speed applications). In this paper an Induction motor modeled in the rotor flux reference frame, the rotor flux orientation is obtained, a high performance current fed Indirect Rotor Flux Oriented Controller also proposed and a comparative performance analysis of the VSI & CSI drive topologies in Flux-Feed forward Vector Control (Indirect Vector Control) is also presented. To verify the design of controllers and system performance, the drive system simulation is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The steady state and dynamic performance of the drive system for different operating conditions are studied. The simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed drive system.
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ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 01, No. 03, Dec 2010
Improved Indirect Rotor Flux Oriented Control of
PWM inverter fed Induction Motor Drives
I. Gerald Christopher Raj 1, Dr. P. Renuga 2, and M. Arul Prasanna 1
1 PSNA College of Engineering and Technology/Department of EEE, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India
Email: gerald.gera@gmail.com, arulresearch2006@gmail.com
2 Thiagarajar College of Engineering /Department of EEE, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
Email: preee@tce.edu


Abstract-- In today's high-power electrical drives using vector
transformer are d-q axis current components and the rotor
controlled induction machines, voltage source inverters (VSI)
position and the output is the current reference vector
based on PWM technology and current source inverters (CSI)
based on the stator coordinate. There is no interlinkage flux
based on based on PWM technology are the most important
feedback loop, but the flux is controlled by the feed
alternatives for motor supply (cyclo-converters being confined
to very low speed applications). In this paper an Induction

forward control utilizing the machine parameters [4]-[6],
motor modeled in the rotor flux reference frame, the rotor
[8], [9].
flux orientation is obtained, a high performance current fed
The vector controlled drives employ mostly a Voltage
Indirect Rotor Flux Oriented Controller also proposed and a
Source Inverter (VSI) to control the motor armature,
comparative performance analysis of the VSI & CSI drive
despite the inherent advantages of the Current Source
topologies in Flux-Feed forward Vector Control (Indirect
Inverter (CSI) topology. This is partly due to the current
Vector Control) is also presented. To verify the design of
controllers and system performance, the drive system

source nature of the topology and the complexity of the
simulation is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The
controls required, the voltage source being a more
steady state and dynamic performance of the drive system for
universal power supply and being easier to control [10]-
different operating conditions are studied. The simulation
[12]. The VSI has drawbacks that complicate control
results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
circuit implementation and may reduce the drive reliability,
proposed drive system.

including:
Index Terms-- CSI, Indirect, Rotor flux Orientation, Vector
- the requirement for additional circuit to protect the
control, VSI.
converter against internal and external short circuit,
- the high dv/dt of the pulse width modulated inverter
I. INTRODUCTION
output which is known to have resulted in motor
winding failures,
It is well known that the instantaneous torque produced
- the possibility of internal short circuits resulting from
by an ac machine is controllable when vector control is
applied. There are essentially two general methods of
improper gating, particularly under fast transients, this
vector control. One called the direct or feed-back method
reduces the converter reliability
was invented by Blaschke [1], and the other, known as the
To overcome these problems this paper proposes a
indirect or feed forward method, was invented by Hasse
voltage-regulated CSI fed Indirect Rotor-Flux-Oriented
[2]. The methods are different essentially by how the unit
Control (IRFOC) of induction motor drive which offers the
vector (cos and sin ) is generated for the control. It
same features as its VSI counterpart, together with the
should be mention here that the orientation of ids with rotor
added advantages inherent in the CSI topology, namely
flux r or stator flux s is possible in vector control [3].
suppression of high dv/dt across motor windings, built-in
The rotor flux orientation gives natural decoupling control,
short-circuit protection, natural power reversibility and
whereas stator flux orientation gives a coupling effect
high reliability with minimum torque ripple. In section II
which has to be compensated by a decoupling the basic concept of flux feed forward control for VSI &
compensation current. Therefore the ac machine controlled
CSI drive topologies explained. The section III deals
by the vector control scheme is equivalent to a separately
induction motor model in rotor flux frame and the current
excited dc machine.
model of rotor flux estimation. The simulation circuit
Nowadays, the flux-feed forward vector control system
models and results are discussed in section IV.
is preferred to the flux-feedback type because it requires no
flux detector or flux calculator. The indirect vector control
II. FLUX-FEED FORWARD VECTOR CONTROL
circuit inputs the amplitude of the torque component
current reference vector and the amplitude of the
Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of flux feed forward
interlinkage flux reference vector and calculates the current
vector control of induction motor fed from voltage source
reference vector based on the rotor coordinate, utilizing the
inverter. Here both inverter output voltage and frequency
machine parameters. The inputs of the coordinate
7
(c) 2010 ACEEE



DOI: 01.IJEPE.01.03.67



ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 01, No. 03, Dec 2010
This converts the CSI into a voltage source, but preserves
the inherent features of the CSI topology listed above
closely as possible.
III. INDUCTION MOTOR MODEL AND ROTOR FLUX
ESTIMATION

Figure 1. Flux-feed forward vector control with VSI
The model of three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor
in the rotating rotor flux reference frame can be expressed
as



(1)
.





(2)



Figure 2. Flux-feed forward vector control with CSI



(3)

can be controlled by its PWM scheme. For the rotor flux

control the calculated
*
r is compared with its reference r


(4)
to generate d-axis stator current reference i *
ds . The q-axis
stator current reference i *

qs is generated according to the
torque reference T *
The investigated induction motor's parameters are given
e . The feedback dq-axis stator currents
are compared with their references, and errors are send to
in Table 1. The rotor flux can be calculated from the
current controllers to generate stator voltage reference in
following expressions.
dq-axis voltages in synchronous reference frame then they



.
are transformed to three-phase stator voltages V
*
abc in
Where
stationary reference frame. The rotor flux angle is used
34.7

in transformation blocks for field orientation.
0.1557
Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of flux feed forward

vector control of induction motor fed from current source


0.8
34.7
35.5

inverter. Here the inverter output frequency is controlled by

PWM scheme but the inverter output current is adjusted by
The rotor flux angle `' can be calculated from the
the dc current of the rectifier. The q-axis (torque-
following expressions.
producing) stator current reference i *
qs and d-axis (flux-

producing) current reference i *
ds are generated in the same


(5)
manner as in the case of VSI fed drives.
Where
The general control system block diagram of the


proposed CSI induction motor drive is shown in Fig. 3.



Here the gating patterns are generated in a manner such
The dq-axis current components can be obtained from
that the inverter output voltage is regulated.
the following expressions.


(6)



(7)
The transformation of the three-phase (abc-axis) current
components of an induction motor to the equivalent two-
phase (dq-axis) current components can be performed by

2
4
2
3
3
.

3
2
4
3
3
The three-phase current components ias, ibs, and ics are in
stationary reference frame which does not rotate in space
whereas the two phase current components ids, iqs are in the

synchronous reference frame whose direct and quadrature
Figure 3. Proposed Rotor Flux-feed forward vector control with CSI
axes rotate in space at the synchronous speed
8
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DOI: 01.IJEPE.01.03.67



ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 01, No. 03, Dec 2010

IV. ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION RESULTS
2
2
The proposed control algorithm is derived from the basic
3
3
.
principle of rotor field orientation control. Consequently,

4
4
so it is still vector control method. It should be noted that
3
3
the purpose of this control method is aimed to reduce the

money cost in hardware, and simplify the control design.
The rotor flux can also be calculated from the following
The drive architectures of Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 have
equations
been completely implemented and assessed in the Mat lab-
cos


Simulink environment along with their respective control
(8)
systems. The simulation is based on the parameters shown

in Table I and Table II. Fig. 5 to 9 shows the dynamic
sin

(9)
responds of VSI vector control and proposed CSI vector
control scheme in case of no load and 200 Nm load.




(10)

Rotor Flux vector estimation using current model
In the low-speed region, the rotor flux components can
be synthesized more easily with the help of speed and
current signals. The rotor circuit equations can be given as


0
(11)


0
(12)
Adding the terms


Figure 4. Simulink diagram of actual induction motor model in rotor flux




(13)
frame

Table I
Induction Motor Parameters

(14)
50HP, 460V, 4Pole, 60Hz, Squirrel-cage motor

Respectively, on both sides of the above equations (11),
Values in SI Units
Nominal Parameters
(12) the equations becomes

Rs=0.087
Stator resistance (Ohm)
(15)
Rr=0.228
Rotor resistance (Ohm)

Lsl=0.8e-3
Stator leakage inductance (H)
(16)
Lrl=0.8e-3
Rotor leakage inductance (H)

Lm=34.7e-3
Magnetizing inductance (H)
After simplification
P=4
Number of poles

(17)
J=1.662
Moment of inertia (kg.m2)

Bm=0.1 Torque
speed
coefficient


(18)
Table II
The above two equations give rotor fluxes as functions
Gains of Controller

of stator currents and speed. After knowing these signals,
the fluxes and corresponding unit vector signals can be
Kp = 100
Proportional Gain
estimated. Flux estimation by this requires a speed encoder,
but the advantage is that the drive operation can be
Ki = 2500
Integral Gain
extended down to zero speed.
TL= 350
Torque Limit (N.m)
9
(c) 2010 ACEEE



DOI: 01.IJEPE.01.03.67



ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 01, No. 03, Dec 2010
a)
Fig. 6 shows the proposed flux feed forward vector
controlled drive's modeling results at no load TL = 0 N.m.
Fig. 6(a) shows the phase A stator current response when
the speed reference suddenly changed at .2 sec. Fig. 6(b)
shows the electromagnetic torque response with refer to the
speed reference.
Fig. 7 shows the proposed flux feed forward vector
controlled drive's modeling rotor speed response with refer
to the speed command. The speed command suddenly
increased at 0.2 sec. and suddenly decreased at 1.5 sec. the
motor speed follows the reference speed.

b)


Figure 7. Simulated waveforms of PWM current source inverter fed
induction motor drive's rotor speed response with refer to the rotor speed
Figure 5. Simulated waveforms of PWM voltage source inverter fed
reference-speed command change at 0.2sec. and 1.5sec.
induction motor drive with no load TL = 0 N.m a) phase A stator current.
a)
b) Electromagnetic Torque
a)


b)
b)

Figure 6. Simulated waveforms of PWM current source inverter fed
induction motor drive with no load TL = 0 N.m a) phase A stator current b)
Electromagnetic Torque

Fig. 5 shows the VSI fed flux feed forward vector
controlled drive's modeling results at no load TL = 0 N.m.
Figure 8. Simulated modeling waveforms of PWM VSI fed induction
Fig. 5(a) shows the phase A stator current response when
motor drive with load torque TL =200 N.m a) Phase A stator current b)
the speed reference suddenly changed at .2 sec. Fig. 5(b)
Electromagnetic Torque with ripples
shows the electromagnetic torque response with refer to the
speed reference.
10
(c) 2010 ACEEE



DOI: 01.IJEPE.01.03.67



ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 01, No. 03, Dec 2010
a)
and transient state conditions. At very low speed, proposed
indirect rotor-flux-oriented control (IRFOC) of induction
motor drive is particularly sensitive to an accurate rotor
resistance value in the rotor flux. To overcome this
problem, the implementation of online tuning rotor
resistance variation of the induction motor is essential in
order to maintain the dynamic performance of the drive. So
the implementation of online rotor resistance tuning is the
main future scope of this paper.
REFERENCES
[1] F.Blaschke, "The principle of field orientation as applied to
b)
the new transvector closed-loop control system for rotating
field Machines," Siemens Review, vol.34, pp.217-220, May
1972.
[2] Hasse, K., "Zum dynamischen Verhalten der
Asynchronmaschine bei Betrieb mit variabler
Standerfrequenz und Standerspannung" ETZ-A 89, 1968, pp.
387-391
[3] R. W. De Doncker and D. W. ovotny, "The universal field
oriented controller", IEEE IAS Annu. Meet. Conf. Rec.,pp.
450-456, 1988.


[4] R. Krishnan and P. Pillay, "Sensitivity analysis and
comparison of parameter compensation scheme in vector
controlled induction motor drives," in IEEE-IAS Ann.

Meeting Conf. Rec., 1986, pp. 155-161.
Figure 9. Simulated modeling waveforms of PWM CSI fed induction
[5] J. Holtz, "Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Drives,"
motor drive with load torque T
Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 90, No. 8, Aug. 2002, pp. 1359
L =200 N.m a) Phase A stator current b)
Electromagnetic Torque with reduced ripples
- 1394.

[6] G. Pellegrino, R. Bojoi and P. Guglielmi, Performance
Fig. 8.a) shows the phase A stator current with ripples,
Comparison of Sensorless Field Oriented Control
so these ripples developed high electromagnetic torque
Techniques for Low Cost Three-Phase Induction Motor
ripples shown in Fig. 8.b). The ripples are minimized in the
Drives", Industry Applications Conference, 42nd IAS
proposed system. Fig. 9.a) shows the ripple free phase A
Annual Meeting. 2007.
stator current, so the developed electromagnetic torque has
[7] P.Vas, Vector Control of AC Machines, Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1990.
low ripples shown in Fig. 9.b).
[8] B.K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives, 2001,
Pearson Education.
CONCLUSIONS
[9] P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff, Analysis of
Electric Machines and Drive Systems, 2nd edition, Wiley-
In this paper, the control of a high performance PWM
IEEE Press, New York, 2002
current source inverter fed induction motor drive has been
[10] Miki, O. Nakao and S. Nishiyama, "A new simplified current
discussed. The control system has been realized in the
control method for fielddented induction drives", IEEE
rotor-flux-oriented reference frame. The proposed CSI
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1081-570, Nov./Dec.
drive topology exhibits the same high performance features
1991.
as the corresponding VSI topology, both in terms of
[11] B. Wu, S.Dewan and G. Slemon, "PWM-CSI inverter for
waveform quality and dynamic performance. It has
induction motor drives", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28, no.
additional control flexibility (waveform and efficiency
1, pp. 317-325, Jan./Feb. 1992.
improvements) and the inherent advantages of the CSI
[12] H. Inaba, K. Hirasawa, T. Ando, M. Hombu and M.
Nakazato, "Development of a high-speed elevator controlled
topology (short-circuit protection, low output dv/dt.). The
by current source inverter system with sinusoidal input and
tests with the simulation model of Indirect Rotor Flux
output", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 893-643,
Oriented Controller (Feed-Forward Vector Controller) for
July/August 1992
induction motor show excellent performance in both steady

11
(c) 2010 ACEEE



DOI: 01.IJEPE.01.03.67



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