This is not the document you are looking for? Use the search form below to find more!

Report home > Industry

Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets

0.00 (0 votes)
Document Description
A study was initiated to investigate the feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to market barrows to achieve improvements of bacon quality characteristics. CLA was fed at 55 kg of body weight to 113 kg of body weight. CLA improved belly firmness (P
File Details
  • Added: October, 18th 2009
  • Reads: 438
  • Downloads: 15
  • File size: 20.53kb
  • Pages: 4
  • Tags: conjugated linoliec acid, belly and bacon quality, pig, diet
  • content preview
Submitter
  • Username: shinta
  • Name: shinta
  • Documents: 4332
Embed Code:

Add New Comment




Related Documents

Influence of Short-Term Memory Codes on Visual Image Processing : Evidence From Image Transformation Tasks

by: shinta, 9 pages

Three experiments showed that phonological recoding of visual stimuli in short-term memory (STM) affects coding in long-term memory (LTM) and therefore performance on tasks involving ...

Influence of Pre-drying treatments on Quality and Safety of Sun-dried Tomatoes : Effects of Storage on Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Sun-dried Tomatoes Pretreated with Sulfur, Sodium Metbisulfite, or Salt

by: shinta, 6 pages

Pre-drying treatments have been found to improve the quality of stored sun-dried tomatoes. Based on previous investigation (Part I), 5 specific pretreatments were chosen for effects on ...

The influence of the ratio bias phenomenon on the elicitation of health states utilities

by: shinta, 16 pages

This paper tests whether logically equivalent risk formats can lead to different health state utilities elicited by means of the traditional standard gamble (SG) method and a modified version ...

In Order to Get Rid of Afflictions,Change Your Outlook on Life and Value

by: baican, 5 pages

We are in the last days of this age. Year 2013 is the turning point. Xue Feng ,Deiform Buddha,the messenger of the Greatest Creator,got the Revelation to build Lifechanyuan, the Noah’s ark in ...

Effect of Sample Preparation Methods and Extraction Time on Yield and Antioxidant Activity from Kradonbok (Careya sphaerica Roxb.) Leaves

by: shinta, 7 pages

Kradonbok (Careya sphaerica Roxb.), one of Thai indigenous vegetables, was selected for studying the effect of sample preparation method and extraction time on antioxidant activity. The ...

Effect of Extrusion Parameters on Conjugated Linoleic Acids of Corn Extrudates

by: shinta, 6 pages

The effects of extrusion temperature, 150-190 °C, and torque, 50-70%, on the content and configuration of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in corn extrudates were analyzed by GC and HPLC ...

Influence of K-Casein Genetic Variant on Cheese Making Ability

by: shinta, 3 pages

There cheese making trials were arranged to investigation the effect of k-casein genotypes on milk renneting properties fresh cheese yield and composition. K-casein BB milk had significantly ...

Mr. Ron Nechemia, Chairman of EurOrient Financial Group, to Attend Special High-level Meeting of the Economic and Social Council with the Bretton Woods Institutions, the World Trade Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

by: eurorient, 6 pages

The Special High-level Meeting of the Economic and Social Council (“ECOSOC”) with the Bretton Woods Institutions, the World Trade Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade ...

The Influence Of The Word Connection Type On The Facilitation Effect In The Lexical Decision Task

by: pauwel, 4 pages

The results of numerous studies indicate that word recognition is faster when a target word is preceded by the associatively or semantically connected prime word (cf. Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; ...

Defining the Knowledge Units of a Synthetic Language : Comment on Vokey and Brooks (1992)

by: shinta, 6 pages

Vokey and Brooks (1992) reported a set of experiments intended to demonstrate that judgments of grammaticality are determined by two characteristics of the test items: their similarity with ...

Content Preview
Iowa State University
Meat
Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and
Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets
S.T. Larsen graduate assistant;
F.C. Parrish, Jr. professor;
Materials and Methods
Forty-seven barrows weighing
J. Swan graduate assistant;
approximately 55 kg were fed one of six diets. These
B.R. Wiegand graduate assistant;
diets consisted of diet 1, normal corn; diet 2, diet 1 +
L.J. Vaske undergraduate assistant;
1.25% CLA-60 oil; diet 3, high oil corn; diet 4, diet 3
and J.C. Sparks graduate assistant
+ 1.25% CLA-60 oil; diet 5, diet 1 + choice white
Meat Science
grease; diet 6, diet 5 + 1.25% CLA-60 oil. Soy oil
replaced CLA to make diets 1 and 2 isocaloric and 3,
4, 5, and 6 isocaloric. Pigs were slaughtered at the
ASL-R697
ISU meat lab at an average live weight of 113 kg. At
24-h postmortem, carcasses were fabricated into
Summary and Implications
primal cuts and bellies were collected. Spare ribs and
A study was initiated to investigate the
skin were removed from the bellies.
feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to market
Before processing, belly firmness was
barrows to achieve improvements of bacon quality
measured by using a standard bar test. This was
characteristics. CLA was fed at 55 kg of body weight
measured on each belly by measuring the inside
to 113 kg of body weight. CLA improved belly
distance between the ends of the belly while the belly
firmness (P<0.05) for all diets according to the belly
was suspended lengthwise across a _-in. diameter
bar firmness test but CLA did not improve bacon
stainless steel bar. Those measurements were taken
sliceability. Bacon slabs from CLA-supplemented
on both the bellies fat side down and the lean side
pigs were firmer according to the compression test.
down. They were then weighed to obtain a green
Dietary CLA increased the percentage of saturated
belly weight.
fatty acids and CLA isomers in bacon.
Bellies were cured using a brine injection
with a Townsend Model 1400 (Townsend
Introduction
Engineering, Des Moines, IA), and then weighed to
Diets of market pigs containing high-oil
get a pumped belly weight. The target pump was
corn can be very beneficial. Improvement of feed
12%. The brine consisted of 77.13% water, 12.25%
efficiency is one way a pork producer can benefit by
salt, 4.25% sugar, 4.25% phosphate, 0.458%
the use of high-oil corn. Another way high-oil corn
erythorbate, and 0.104% nitrite. Bellies were
could help is that can act as a source of energy for
allowed to equilibrate before being thermally
growing pigs. A potential down side, however, to
processed in a Maurer (Reichenau, Germany)
feeding high-oil corn is that it increases soft carcass
thermal-processing unit. Immediately after their
fat because it has a higher content of unsaturated fatty
removal from the Maurer, they were weighed for a
acids and hence this unsaturated condition makes
hot yield weight. Then they were placed in a cooler
very soft bellies. Softness is directly proportional to
(2oC) to chill for 24 hours.
the polyunsaturated fatty acids in high-oil corn diets.
After 24 hours, the bacon side was then
The result of soft bellies is reduced sliceability and a
weighed for a chilled weight, squared, and placed in a
lower yield of bacon slices. Moreover, unsaturated
Berkel Model 1170 slicer (U.S. Slicing Machine
fats are very sensitive to lipid oxidation leading to
Company, Inc., Laporte, IN). One bacon was
off-flavors. Consequently, a shorter shelf life of
completely sliced and the slices were separated by
bacon is a potential result of feeding pigs high oil
visual quality (e.g., shattered, torn, or not appealing)
corn. Moreover, a decrease in bacon slicing yields
into either acceptable or unacceptable portions to
and a shorter shelf life can cause a huge impact on
determine the weights of each group.
the profitability of the pork industry. An alternative
Two slices were taken from each end and
to these problems could be by supplementing
from the middle section from each bacon side for a
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA has been
total of six slices. These slices were taken for fat and
shown to improve belly firmness and increase in
moisture determination along with protein content
shelf life. Consequently, supplementation of CLA
according to AOAC approved methods. Two
could benefit belly firmness and shelf life in diets
methods were used to cook the slices, frying and
containing high-oil corn.
microwave methods. These slices were cooked
228

Iowa State University
Meat
beyond the “limp” stage or until the desired crispness
Effects of frying (F), microwave (M) and
was reached. One method cooked the slices by using
raw (R) on moisture, fat and protein percentages of
a standard frying skillet at 177oC. The slices were
bacon from pigs fed various diets using two different
cooked on the first side for 2 minutes and 30 seconds,
cooking methods are shown in Table 3. Significant
and then they were turned and cooked for another 1
differences were observed for moisture percentages
minute and 30 seconds, and turned one more time
of raw bacon slices compared with the cooked bacon
and cooked for 30 seconds. The slices were then
slices, regardless of cooking method within each
blotted dry by using a paper towel. The second
treatment. No differences were observed for protein
method cooked the slices by using a Radarange
percentages.
microwave with 1500 max watts. The slices were
TBA values of bacon from pigs fed various
placed on a microwavable tray, placed in the
diets are shown in Table 4. No differences were
microwave and cooked at full power for 2 minutes
observed for TBA values over a 5-month shelf life
o
study.
and 20 seconds, and then rotated 180 , and cooked
Data in table 5 shows least squares means for
for another 2 minutes and 20 seconds. The slices
compression values (kg) of bacon slabs from pigs fed
were then blotted dry by using a paper towel. Slices
various diets. The addition of CLA into the normal
were frozen in liquid nitrogen and then ground. Two
corn, high-oil corn and normal corn with choice
slices were taken from each end and from the middle
white grease diets increased bacon slab firmness.
section from each bacon side for a total of six slices
Bacon firmness results were also seen in the belly bar
for lipid oxidation tests (TBA), once a month for five
firmness test when the bellies were placed fat side
consecutive months. Oxidation products were
down.
measured with a mass spectrophotometer at 532 nm.
Results of the effect of CLA on fatty acid
The TBA values are reported as milligrams of
composition and CLA content are shown in Table 6.
malonaldehyde per kilogram of sample. The slices
As expected, CLA increased the percentage of
also were frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground prior
saturated fatty acids, which were palmitic acid (16:0)
to doing each TBA. The other bacon side was
and stearic acid (18:0). CLA also decreased
partially sliced and three 10.16-cm slabs were taken
unsaturated fatty acids, which were oleic acid (18:1)
at 25, 50, and 75% of the length of the belly from the
and arachadonic acid (20:4) in every diet. The trans-
shoulder end for compression tests. Compression
9, trans-11 isomer was slightly incorporated into the
tests were taken at 25, 50, and 75% of the width from
CLA diets, but not at a significant amount. However,
the navel edge of the bacon slab. Two slices were
the cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers of
taken from each end and from the middle section
CLA were significantly increased. The cis-9, trans-
from each bacon slab for a total of six slices were
11 isomer was incorporated at a higher percentage
taken for lipid analysis. Results were analyzed with
than the trans-10, cis-12 isomer.
the proc GLM procedures of SAS. Means were
considered different at a preset
Conclusions
P value of 0.05 or less. The means shown in the
tables are least-squares means produced by SAS.
The increase in firmness of bellies and
bacon slabs demonstrated by the supplementation of
Results and Discussion
CLA could save dollars for the belly processors in the
Belly firmness values according to the belly
bacon industry. The incorporation of CLA into
bar firmness test of fresh bellies are shown in Table
bacon slices could have potentially positive impacts
1. As expected, the bellies from CLA-fed pigs had
on the health of consumers. CLA has beneficial
increased belly firmness when measured fat side
effects such as enhancing immune function,
down according to the belly bar firmness test. Bellies
preventing heart disease and cancer, and body
from CLA-fed pigs also increased belly firmness lean
compositional differences could improve the health
side down for the normal corn with choice white
of consumers. These results with supplementation of
grease diet. However, CLA only slightly increased
CLA in swine diets demonstrate a positive effect on
the other two diets, though not significantly.
some measures of belly quality. Additional research
Belly processing weights (kg), processing
is currently under way at ISU. This will help
yields (%), and sliceability weights (kg) of bellies
examine more closely belly quality with regard to
from pigs fed various diets are shown in Table 2. No
diets containing CLA and high-energy diets.
differences were observed between any diets
according to these observations.
229

Iowa State University
Meat
Table 1. Belly bar firmness test (cm) of bellies from pigs fed various diets.
NC
NC/CLA
HOC
HOC/CLA
NC/CWG
NC/CWG/CLA
SEM
LDc
12.32
18.80
11.13
15.98
10.08a
18.62b
1.73
FDc
18.39a
28.68b
12.85a
22.45b
12.65a
29.21b
2.21
cMeans within a row with different letters are significantly different at P<0.05,
LD, lean side down
FD, fat side down
Table 2. Belly processing weights (kg), processing yields (%), and sliceability weights (kg)
of
bellies from pigs fed various diets.

NC
NC/CLA
HOC
HOC/CLA
NC/CWG
NC/CWG/CLA
SEM
Green wt
5.36
5.54
5.53
5.15
5.59
5.72
0.15
Pumped wt
6.05
6.59
6.53
5.90
6.47
6.48
0.23
Pr smokehouse
6.11
6.56
6.49
5.93
6.52
6.51
0.21
Hot wt
5.52
5.79
5.78
5.34
5.79
5.89
0.17
Chilled wt
5.36
5.55
5.59
5.20
5.61
5.71
0.16
Initial loss
9.53
11.68
10.88
10.01
10.93
9.50
0.86
24-hr loss
2.85
4.19
3.23
2.42
3.17
2.96
0.51
Total loss
12.09
15.38
13.75
12.17
13.75
12.17
1.03
Initial wt
5.24
5.30
5.44
5.13
5.34
5.52
0.13
Squared wt
4.02
4.24
4.30
4.09
4.07
4.44
0.12
Acceptable Slices
3.72
3.97
4.05
3.82
3.80
4.05
0.12
Unacceptable Slices
0.30
0.27
0.25
0.27
0.27
0.39
0.05
Pr, weight prior to smokehouse,
Initial loss, 100 – (hot cured weight/weight prior to smokehouse),
24-hr loss, 100 – (cooled cured weight/hot cured weight),
Total loss, 100 – (cooled cured weight/weight prior to smokehouse)
Table 3. Effects of frying (F), microwave (M) and raw (R) on moisture, fat and protein
percentages of bacon from pigs fed various diets using two different cooking methods.

NC
NC/CLA
HOC
F
M
R
F
M
R
F
M
R
SEM
Moisturec
16.27a
12.65a
47.02b
11.79a
12.34a
46.35b
12.30a
12.39a
41.89b
2.20
Fatc
34.15
35.61
36.33
35.89
35.10
35.90
33.33a
36.14a
42.16b
1.82
Protein
14.03
13.84
12.64
0.61
HOC/CLA
NC/CWG
NC/CWG/CLA
F
M
R
F
M
R
F
M
R
SEM
Moisturec
13.66a
14.29a
45.31b
12.83a
13.85a
45.14b
10.89a
15.96a
44.29b
2.20
Fatc
36.33
33.68
38.06
33.13
34.16
38.08
38.05
35.68
38.79
1.82
Protein
13.24
13.69
13.62
0.61
c Means within a row with different letters are significantly different at P<0.05.
230

Iowa State University
Meat
Table 4. TBAa values of bacon from pigs fed various diets.
Month
NC
NC/CLA
HOC
HOC/CLA
NC/CWG
NC/CWG/CLA
SEM
1
0.158
0.168
0.180
0.156
0.185
0.159
0.133
2
0.150
0.153
0.163
0.140
0.184
0.159
0.009
3
0.161
0.139
0.149
0.156
0.170
0.145
0.128
4
0.143
0.141
0.143
0.134
0.160
0.138
0.009
5
0.155
0.155
0.163
0.148
0.188
0.155
0.011
a TBA values expressed as milligrams of malonaldehyde per kilogram sample.
Table 5. Compression values (kg) of bacon slabs from pigs fed various diets.
NC
NC/CLA
HOC
HOC/CLA
NC/CWG
NC/CWG/CLA
SEM
Forcec
10.39a
11.52b
9.17a
10.29b
8.69a
11.67b
0.37
Areac
63.61
69.32
55.82
61.87
51.98a
71.21b
2.27
c Means within a row with different letters are significantly different at P<0.05.
Table 6. Fatty acid and CLA percentages of bacon from pigs fed various diets.
NC
NC/CLA
HOC
HOC/CLA
NC/CWG
NC/CWG/CLA
SEM
(16:0) Palmiticc
26.09a
31.43b
24.89a
28.52b
24.82a
29.14b
0.757
(16:1) Palmitoleicc
2.77a
3.40b
2.50
2.74
3.01
3.23
0.116
(18:0) Stearicc
13.80a
16.85b
13.15a
16.25b
12.72a
16.20b
0.661
(18:1) Oleicc
39.72a
30.66b
37.64a
31.31b
41.53a
33.09b
1.427
(18:2) Linoleicc
11.82
9.92
16.63a
13.65b
11.93
9.77
0.723
(18:3) Linolenicc
2.83
2.95
2.26a
2.62b
3.44
3.20
0.100
(20:4) Arachadonicc
1.35a
1.06b
1.41a
1.16b
1.42a
1.18b
0.061
CLA Isomers
t-9, t-11
0
0.06
0
0.05
0
0.03
0.025
c-9, t-11
0a
1.22b
0a
1.18b
0a
1.18b
0.127
t-10, c-12
0a
0.95b
0a
0.93b
0a
0.91b
0.099
c Means within a row with different letters are significantly different at P<0.05.
t, trans configuration
c, cis configuration
NC, normal corn; NC/CLA, normal corn with CLA; HOC, high oil corn; HOC/CLA, high oil corn
with CLA; NC/CWG, normal corn with choice white grease; NC/CWG/CLA, normal corn with
choice white grease with CLA.
231

Download
Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets

 

 

Your download will begin in a moment.
If it doesn't, click here to try again.

Share Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets to:

Insert your wordpress URL:

example:

http://myblog.wordpress.com/
or
http://myblog.com/

Share Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets as:

From:

To:

Share Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets.

Enter two words as shown below. If you cannot read the words, click the refresh icon.

loading

Share Influence of Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) on Belly and Bacon Quality From Pigs Fed Various Diets as:

Copy html code above and paste to your web page.

loading