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Inorganic chemistry Atkins 5th edition

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Inorganic chemistry
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The elements
Name
Symbol
Atomic
Molar mass
Name
Symbol
Atomic
Molar mass
number
(g mol 1)
number
(g mol 1)
Actinium
Ac
89
227
Meitnerium
Mt
109
268
Aluminium (aluminum)
Al
13
26.98
Mendelevium
Md
101
258
Americium
Am
95
243
Mercury
Hg
80
200.59
Antimony
Sb
51
121.76
Molybdenun
Mo
42
95.94
Argon
Ar
18
39.95
Neodymium
Nd
60
144.24
Arsenic
As
33
74.92
Neon
Ne
10
20.18
Astatine
At
85
210
Neptunium
Np
93
237
Barium
Ba
56
137.33
Nickel
Ni
28
58.69
Berkelium
Bk
97
247
Niobium
Nb
41
92.91
Beryllium
Be
4
9.01
Nitrogen
N
7
14.01
Bismuth
Bi
83
208.98
Nobelium
No
102
259
Bohrium
Bh
107
264
Osmium
Os
76
190.23
Boron
B
5
10.81
Oxygen
O
8
16.00
Bromine
Br
35
79.90
Palladium
Pd
46
106.42
Cadmium
Cd
48
112.41
Phosphorus
P
15
30.97
Caesium (cesium)
Cs
55
132.91
Platinum
Pt
78
195.08
Calcium
Ca
20
40.08
Plutonium
Pu
94
244
Californium
Cf
98
251
Polonium
Po
84
209
Carbon
C
6
12.01
Potassium
K
19
39.10
Cerium
Ce
58
140.12
Praseodymium
Pr
59
140.91
Chlorine
Cl
17
35.45
Promethium
Pm
61
145
Chromium
Cr
24
52.00
Protactinium
Pa
91
231.04
Cobalt
Co
27
58.93
Radium
Ra
88
226
Copernicum
?
112
?
Radon
Rn
86
222
Copper
Cu
29
63.55
Rhenium
Re
75
186.21
Curium
Cm
96
247
Rhodium
Rh
45
102.91
Darmstadtium
Ds
110
271
Roentgenium
Rg
111
272
Dubnium
Db
105
262
Rubidium
Rb
37
85.47
Dysprosium
Dy
66
162.50
Ruthenium
Ru
44
101.07
Einsteinium
Es
99
252
Rutherfordium
Rf
104
261
Erbium
Er
68
167.27
Samarium
Sm
62
150.36
Europium
Eu
63
151.96
Scandium
Sc
21
44.96
Fermium
Fm
100
257
Seaborgium
Sg
106
266
Fluorine
F
9
19.00
Selenium
Se
34
78.96
Francium
Fr
87
223
Silicon
Si
14
28.09
Gadolinium
Gd
64
157.25
Silver
Ag
47
107.87
Gallium
Ga
31
69.72
Sodium
Na
11
22.99
Germanium
Ge
32
72.64
Strontium
Sr
38
87.62
Gold
Au
79
196.97
Sulfur
S
16
32.06
Hafnium
Hf
72
178.49
Tantalum
Ta
73
180.95
Hassium
Hs
108
269
Technetium
Tc
43
98
Helium
He
2
4.00
Tellurium
Te
52
127.60
Holmium
Ho
67
164.93
Terbium
Tb
65
158.93
Hydrogen
H
1
1.008
Thallium
TI
81
204.38
Indium
In
49
114.82
Thorium
Th
90
232.04
Iodine
I
53
126.90
Thulium
Tm
69
168.93
Iridium
Ir
77
192.22
Tin
Sn
50
118.71
Iron
Fe
26
55.84
Titanium
Ti
22
47.87
Krypton
Kr
36
83.80
Tungsten
W
74
183.84
Lanthanum
La
57
138.91
Uranium
U
92
238.03
Lawrencium
Lr
103
262
Vanadium
V
23
50.94
Lead
Pb
82
207.2
Xenon
Xe
54
131.29
Lithium
Li
3
6.94
Ytterbium
Yb
70
173.04
Lutetium
Lu
71
174.97
Yttrium
Y
39
88.91
Magnesium
Mg
12
24.31
Zinc
Zn
30
65.41
Manganese
Mn
25
54.94
Zirconium
Zr
40
91.22

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Shriver & Atkins'

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Shriver & Atkins'
W. H. Freeman and Company
New York

Shriver and Atkins' Inorganic Chemistry, Fifth Edition
(c) 2010 P.W. Atkins, T.L. Overton, J.P. Rourke, M.T. Weller,
and F.A. Armstrong
All rights reserved.
ISBN 978-1-42-921820-7
Published in Great Britain by Oxford University Press
This edition has been authorized by Oxford University Press for sale in the
United States and Canada only and not for export therefrom.
First printing
W. H. Freeman and Company,
41 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010
www.whfreeman.com

Preface
Our aim in the fifth edition of Shriver and Atkins' Inorganic Chemistry is to provide a
comprehensive and contemporary introduction to the diverse and fascinating discipline of
inorganic chemistry. Inorganic chemistry deals with the properties of all of the elements
in the periodic table. These elements range from highly reactive metals, such as sodium,
to noble metals, such as gold. The nonmetals include solids, liquids, and gases, and range
from the aggressive oxidizing agent fluorine to unreactive gases such as helium. Although
this variety and diversity are features of any study of inorganic chemistry, there are under-
lying patterns and trends which enrich and enhance our understanding of the discipline.
These trends in reactivity, structure, and properties of the elements and their compounds
provide an insight into the landscape of the periodic table and provide a foundation on
which to build understanding.
Inorganic compounds vary from ionic solids, which can be described by simple ap-
plications of classical electrostatics, to covalent compounds and metals, which are best
described by models that have their origin in quantum mechanics. We can rationalize and
interpret the properties of most inorganic compounds by using qualitative models that
are based on quantum mechanics, such as atomic orbitals and their use to form molecular
orbitals. The text builds on similar qualitative bonding models that should already be fa-
miliar from introductory chemistry courses. Although qualitative models of bonding and
reactivity clarify and systematize the subject, inorganic chemistry is essentially an experi-
mental subject. New areas of inorganic chemistry are constantly being explored and new
and often unusual inorganic compounds are constantly being synthesized and identified.
These new inorganic syntheses continue to enrich the field with compounds that give us
new perspectives on structure, bonding, and reactivity.
Inorganic chemistry has considerable impact on our everyday lives and on other sci-
entific disciplines. The chemical industry is strongly dependent on it. Inorganic chemistry
is essential to the formulation and improvement of modern materials such as catalysts,
semiconductors, optical devices, superconductors, and advanced ceramic materials. The
environmental and biological impact of inorganic chemistry is also huge. Current topics
in industrial, biological, and environmental chemistry are mentioned throughout the book
and are developed more thoroughly in later chapters.
In this new edition we have refined the presentation, organization, and visual represen-
tation. All of the book has been revised, much has been rewritten and there is some com-
pletely new material. We have written with the student in mind, and we have added new
pedagogical features and have enhanced others.
The topics in Part 1, Foundations, have been revised to make them more accessible
to the reader with more qualitative explanation accompanying the more mathematical
treatments.
Part 2, The elements and their compounds, has been reorganized. The section starts with
a new chapter which draws together periodic trends and cross references forward to the
descriptive chapters. The remaining chapters start with hydrogen and proceed across the
periodic table from the s-block metals, across the p block, and finishing with the d- and
f-block elements. Most of these chapters have been reorganized into two sections: Essen-
tials
describes the essential chemistry of the elements and the Detail provides a more thor-
ough account. The chemical properties of each group of elements and their compounds are
enriched with descriptions of current applications. The patterns and trends that emerge are
rationalized by drawing on the principles introduced in Part 1.
Part 3, Frontiers, takes the reader to the edge of knowledge in several areas of current
research. These chapters explore specialized subjects that are of importance to industry,
materials, and biology, and include catalysis, nanomaterials, and bioinorganic chemistry.
All the illustrations and the marginal structures--nearly 1500 in all--have been re-
drawn and are presented in full colour. We have used colour systematically rather than just
for decoration, and have ensured that it serves a pedagogical purpose.

viii
Preface
We are confident that this text will serve the undergraduate chemist well. It provides the
theoretical building blocks with which to build knowledge and understanding of inorganic
chemistry. It should help to rationalize the sometimes bewildering diversity of descriptive
chemistry. It also takes the student to the forefront of the discipline and should therefore
complement many courses taken in the later stages of a programme.
Peter Atkins
Tina Overton
Jonathan Rourke
Mark Weller
Fraser Armstrong
Mike Hagerman
March 2009

Acknowledgements
We have taken care to ensure that the text is free of errors. This is difficult in a rapidly
changing field, where today's knowledge is soon replaced by tomorrow's. We would
particularly like to thank Jennifer Armstrong, University of Southampton; Sandra Dann,
University of Loughborough; Rob Deeth, University of Warwick; Martin Jones, Jennifer
Creen, and Russ Egdell, University of Oxford, for their guidance and advice.
Many of the figures in Chapter 27 were produced using PyMOL software; for more
information see DeLano, W.L. The PyMOL Molecular Graphics System (2002), De Lano
Scientific, San Carlos, CA, USA.
We acknowledge and thank all those colleagues who so willingly gave their time and
expertise to a careful reading of a variety of draft chapters.
Rolf Berger, University of Uppsala, Sweden
Richard Henderson, University of Newcastle
Harry Bitter, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands
Eva Hervia, University of Strathclyde
Richard Blair, University of Central Florida
Brendan Howlin, University of Surrey
Andrew Bond, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
Songping Huang, Kent State University
Darren Bradshaw, University of Liverpool
Carl Hultman, Gannon University
Paul Brandt, North Central College
Stephanie Hurst, Northern Arizona University
Karen Brewer, Hamilton College
Jon Iggo, University of Liverpool
George Britovsek, Imperial College, London
S. Jackson, University of Glasgow
Scott Bunge, Kent State University
Michael Jensen, Ohio University
David Cardin, University of Reading
Pavel Karen, University of Oslo, Norway
Claire Carmalt, University College London
Terry Kee, University of Leeds
Carl Carrano, San Diego State University
Paul King, Birbeck, University of London
Neil Champness, University of Nottingham
Rachael Kipp, Suffolk University
Ferman Chavez, Oakland University
Caroline Kirk, University of Loughborough
Ann Chippindale, University of Reading
Lars Kloo, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Karl Coleman, University of Durham
Randolph Kohn, University of Bath
Simon Collison, University of Nottingham
Simon Lancaster, University of East Anglia
Bill Connick, University of Cincinnati
Paul Lickiss, Imperial College, London
Stephen Daff, University of Edinburgh
Sven Lindin, University of Stockholm, Sweden
Sandra Dann, University of Loughborough
Paul Loeffler, Sam Houston State University
Nancy Dervisi, University of Cardiff
Paul Low, University of Durham
Richard Douthwaite, University of York
Astrid Lund Ramstrad, University of Bergen, Norway
Simon Duckett, University of York
Jason Lynam, University of York
A.W. Ehlers, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Joel Mague, Tulane University
Anders Eriksson, University of Uppsala, Sweden
Francis Mair, University of Manchester
Andrew Fogg, University of Liverpool
Mikhail Maliarik, University of Uppsala, Sweden
Margaret Geselbracht, Reed College
David E. Marx, University of Scranton
Gregory Grant, University of Tennessee
Katrina Miranda, University of Arizona
Yurii Gun'ko, Trinity College Dublin
Grace Morgan, University College Dublin
Simon Hall, University of Bristol
Ebbe Nordlander, University of Lund, Sweden
Justin Hargreaves, University of Glasgow
Lars Ohrstrom, Chalmers (Goteborg), Sweden

Document Outline

  • Cover
  • The elements
  • Title page
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the book
  • Summary of contents
  • Contents
  • Glossary of chemical abbreviations
  • Part 1: Foundations
    • Chapter 1: Atomic structure
      • The origin of the elements
      • The structures of hydrogenic atoms
      • Many-electron atoms
    • Chapter 2: Molecular structure and bonding
      • Lewis structures
      • Valence bond theory
      • Molecular orbital theory
      • Structure and bond properties
    • Chapter 3: The structures of simple solids
      • The description of the structures of solids
      • The structures of metals and alloys
      • Ionic solids
      • The energetics of ionic bonding
      • Defects and nonstoichiometry
      • The electronic structures of solids
      • Further information
    • Chapter 4: Acids and bases
      • Brnsted acidity
      • Characteristics of Brnsted acids
      • Lewis acidity
      • Reactions and properties of Lewis acids and bases
      • Applications of acid踅base chemistry
    • Chapter 5: Oxidation and reduction
      • Reduction potentials
      • Redox stability
      • The diagrammatic presentation of potential data
      • Chemical extraction of the elements
    • Chapter 6: Molecular symmetry
      • An introduction to symmetry analysis
      • Applications of symmetry
      • The symmetries of molecular orbitals
      • Representations
    • Chapter 7: An introduction to coordination compounds
      • The language of coordination chemistry
      • Constitution and geometry
      • Isomerism and chirality
      • The thermodynamics of complex formation
    • Chapter 8: Physical techniques in inorganic chemistry
      • Diffraction methods
      • Absorption spectroscopy
      • Resonance techniques
      • Ionization-based techniques
      • Chemical analysis
      • Magnetometry
      • Electrochemical techniques
      • Computational techniques
  • Part 2: The elements and their compounds
    • Chapter 9: Periodic trends
      • Periodic properties of the elements
      • Periodic characteristics of compounds
    • Chapter 10: Hydrogen
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 11: The Group 1 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 12: The Group 2 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 13: The Group 13 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 14: The Group 14 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 15: The Group 15 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 16: The Group 16 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 17: The Group 17 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 18: The Group 18 elements
      • PART A: THE ESSENTIALS
      • PART B: THE DETAIL
    • Chapter 19: The d-block elements
      • The elements
      • Trends in chemical properties
      • Representative compounds
      • Electronic structure
    • Chapter 20: d-Metal complexes: electronic structure and properties
      • Electronic spectra
      • Magnetism
    • Chapter 21: Coordination chemistry: reactions of complexes
      • Ligand substitution reactions
      • Ligand substitution in square-planar complexes
      • Ligand substitution in octahedral complexes
      • Redox reactions
      • Photochemical reactions
    • Chapter 22: d-Metal organometallic chemistry
      • Bonding
      • Ligands
      • Compounds
      • Reactions
      • The elements
    • Chapter 23: The f-block elements
      • Lanthanoid chemistry
      • Actinoid chemistry
  • Part 3: Frontiers
    • Chapter 24: Solid-state and materials chemistry
      • Synthesis of materials
      • Defects and ion transport
      • Metal oxides, nitrides, and fluorides
      • Chalcogenides, intercalation compounds, and metal-rich phases
      • Framework structures
      • Hydrides and hydrogen-storage materials
      • Inorganic pigments
      • Semiconductor chemistry
      • Molecular materials and fullerides
    • Chapter 25: Nanomaterials, nanoscience, and nanotechnology
      • Fundamentals
      • Characterization and fabrication
      • Self-assembled nanostructures
      • Bioinorganic nanomaterials
    • Chapter 26: Catalysis
      • General principles
      • Homogeneous catalysis
      • Heterogeneous catalysis
      • Hybrid catalysis
    • Chapter 27: Biological inorganic chemistry
      • The organization of cells
      • Transport, transfer, and transcription
      • Catalytic processes
      • Biological cycles
      • Sensors
      • Biomineralization
      • The chemistry of elements in medicine
      • Perspectives
  • Resource Section
    • Resource section 1
    • Resource section 2
    • Resource section 3
    • Resource section 4
    • Resource section 5
    • Resource section 6
  • Index

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