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International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Volume (1), Issue (2)

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This is second issue of volume one of the International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM).The International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM) invite papers with theoretical research/conceptual work or applied research/applications on topics related to research, practice, and teaching in all subject areas of Business, Management, Business research, Marketing, MIS-CIS, HRM, Business studies, Operations Management, Business Accounting, Economics, EBusiness/ E-Commerce, and related subjects. IJRBM is intended to be an outlet for theoretical and empirical research contributions for scholars and practitioners in the business field. Some important topics are business accounting, business model and strategy, e-commerce, collaborative commerce and net-enhancement, management systems and sustainable business and supply chain and demand chain management etc.
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International Journal of
Business Research and
Management (IJBRM)







Volume 1, Issue 2, 2010









Edited By

Computer Science Journals
www.cscjournals.org

Editor in Chief Dr. Miquel Àngel Piera i Eroles

International Journal of Business Research and
Management (IJBRM)
Book: 2010 Volume 1, Issue 2
Publishing Date: 20-12-2010
Proceedings
ISSN (Online): 2180-2165

This work is subjected to copyright. All rights are reserved whether the whole or
part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting,
re-use of illusions, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any
other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication of parts
thereof is permitted only under the provision of the copyright law 1965, in its
current version, and permission of use must always be obtained from CSC
Publishers. Violations are liable to prosecution under the copyright law.

IJBRM Journal is a part of CSC Publishers
http://www.cscjournals.org

© IJBRM Journal
Published in Malaysia

Typesetting: Camera-ready by author, data conversation by CSC Publishing
Services – CSC Journals, Malaysia


CSC Publishers


Editorial Preface


This is second issue of volume one of the International Journal of Business Research
and Management (IJBRM).The International Journal of Business Research and
Management (IJBRM) invite papers with theoretical research/conceptual work or
applied research/applications on topics related to research, practice, and teaching in
all subject areas of Business, Management, Business research, Marketing, MIS-CIS,
HRM, Business studies, Operations Management, Business Accounting, Economics, E-
Business/E-Commerce, and related subjects. IJRBM is intended to be an outlet for
theoretical and empirical research contributions for scholars and practitioners in the
business field. Some important topics are business accounting, business model and
strategy, e-commerce, collaborative commerce and net-enhancement, management
systems and sustainable business and supply chain and demand chain management
etc.

IJBRM establishes an effective communication channel between decision- and policy-
makers in business, government agencies, and academic and research institutions to
recognize the implementation of important role effective systems in organizations.
IJBRM aims to be an outlet for creative, innovative concepts, as well as effective
research methodologies and emerging technologies for effective business
management.

IJBRM editors understand that how much it is important for authors and researchers
to have their work published with a minimum delay after submission of their papers.
They also strongly believe that the direct communication between the editors and
authors are important for the welfare, quality and wellbeing of the Journal and its
readers. Therefore, all activities from paper submission to paper publication are
controlled through electronic systems that include electronic submission, editorial
panel and review system that ensures rapid decision with least delays in the
publication processes.

To build its international reputation, we are disseminating the publication information
through Google Books, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ),
Open J Gate, ScientificCommons, Docstoc, Scribd, CiteSeerX and many more. Our
International Editors are working on establishing ISI listing and a good impact factor
for IJBRM. We would like to remind you that the success of our journal depends
directly on the number of quality articles submitted for review. Accordingly, we
would like to request your participation by submitting quality manuscripts for review
and encouraging your colleagues to submit quality manuscripts for review. One of
the great benefits we can provide to our prospective authors is the mentoring nature
of our review process. IJBRM provides authors with high quality, helpful reviews that
are shaped to assist authors in improving their manuscripts.

Editorial Board Members
International Journal Of Business Research And Management (IJBRM)






Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief (EiC)
Dr. Miquel Àngel Piera i Eroles
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)


Associate Editors (AEiCs)
Assistant Professor. Jose Humberto Ablanedo-Rosas
University of Texas (United States of America)

Editorial Board Members (EBMs)
Dr. Hooi Hooi Lean
Universiti Sains Malaysia (Malaysia)
Professor. Agostino Bruzzone
University of Genoa (Italy)
Assistant Professor. Lorenzo Castelli
University of Trieste (Italy)
Dr. Francesco Longo
University of Calabria (Italy)
Associate Professor. Lu Wei
University of China (China)
Dr. Avninder Gill
Thompson Rivers University (Canada)
Dr. Haitao Li
University of Missouri (United States of America)
Dr. Kaoru Kobayashi
Griffith University (Australia)
Assistant Professor. Manuel Francisco Suárez Barraza
Tecnológico de Monterrey (Mexico)
Assistant Professor. Haibo Wang
Texas A&M International University (United States of America)
Professor. Ming DONG
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China)
Dr. Zhang Wen Yu
Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics (China)
Dr. Jillian Cavanagh
La Trobe University (Australia)
Dr. Dalbir Singh
National University of Malaysia (Malaysia)
Assistant Professor. Dr. Md. Mamun Habib
American International University (Bangladesh)
Assistant Professor. Srimantoorao. S. Appadoo
University of Manitoba (Canada)
Professor. Atul B Borade
Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engineering and Technology (India)
Dr. Vasa, Laszlo
Szent Istvan University (Hungary)
Assistant Professor. Birasnav Muthuraj
New York Institute of Technology (Bahrain)

Table of Content




Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2010



Pages
14 – 32
Analyzing target user group¡¦s preferences and product form

design specification through web-based 2-dimensinoal design

decision tool

Jih-Shyong Lin, Shih-Yen Huang


33 - 45
Manager’s Preferences Modeling within Multi-Criteria Flowshop

Scheduling Problem: A Metaheuristic Approach

Mohamed Anis Allouche


Offering A Model Of Evaluation Of Trust Suggesting Between
46 - 58
Customers And E-Stores(B2C) Based On Approaches Of Fuzzy

Logic

Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Mohammad Fathian, Mohammad Reza

Gholamian , Othman Bin Ibrahim



A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car
59 - 63
Selling

Krishn A. Goyal, A. Sadasivam



Reflecting upon Management Systems: Content analysis and
64 – 86
synthesis

Manuel F. Suárez-Bar , Juan Ramis-Pujol, Miguel Ángel Heras



International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Volume (1), Issue (2)

87 - 104
A Three-Step Procedure (3SP) for the Best Use of Skilled Labor
Youmin Ding, Doug Strong











International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Volume (1), Issue (2)

Shih-Yen Huang & Jih-Shyong Lin
Analyzing Target User Group’s Preferences and Product Form
Design Specification Through Web-Based 2-Dimensinoal Design
Decision Tool


Shih-Yen Huang




mark2a9239@hotmail.com
Department of Industrial Design
Huafan University
Taipei County, 22301, Taiwan (R.O.C)


Jih-Shyong Lin






jslin@ttu.edu.tw
Ph.D. Program of Design Science
Tatung University
Taipei, 106, Taiwan (R.O.C)


Abstract

In the modern market where consumerism is running higher and the product life
span is getting shorter, it is one of the challenges for the marketing and design
departments in enterprises to know how to get a thorough grasp of the
consumer’s preference and potential target user group. With the wide spread and
growth of the internet, a web-based survey is not influenced by time and space
factors, making it easier for designers to have an in-depth understanding of the
consumer’s preferences towards products. Based upon the 2-dimensional image
scale, 120 college students from Taiwan and Japan were invited to evaluate 27
pencil sharpener samples in terms of their preferences and intention of purchase.
From the survey, competitive portable pencil sharpeners were identified for the
references of new product design and development. The results indicated that
such a web-based 2-dimensional image survey system could offer real time help
in product segmentation and the selection of competition products as well as the
target user group with the output systematic diagrams and tables. Furthermore,
morphological analysis for product form elements and quantification type I
analysis could help designers and marketing managers set up proper policies for
product form design for the target user groups in the design and marketing of
new product development.

Keywords: Design Decision Tool, Market Segmentation, Target User Group Analysis


1. INTRODUCTION
The development of the internet has made the web an efficient channel for communication. As a
result, many scholars construct image analytic tools based upon the internet technology to help
designers control the consumer’s feelings of product form so as to develop products that meet the
consumer’s preferences and needs. In their systems, data obtained from the survey were used
for product image analysis by statistical analyses such as factor analysis or Multidimensional
Scaling Analysis (MDS). Because of the variation of consumer behaviors in the market place
nowadays, different user groups may vary in their preferences toward products. It causes the
segmentation of the market place of the same products. In light of this, it is necessary that
International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Volume (1): Issue (2)
14

Shih-Yen Huang & Jih-Shyong Lin
designers consider the market segmentation and preferences of special user groups in the design
and development of new products. From this point of view, product design and development is
closely related to market segmentation and preferences of the target user group.

The web-based design decision tool proposed in this study was mainly based upon the 2-
dimensional image scale frequently used in design departments in enterprises. It is a goal-
oriented analytic system that could meet the enterprise’s needs in doing specific product image
survey. In this study, the distribution patterns of product samples in four quadrants could be
specified for market segmentation. The design decision tool proposed in the present study
applied SWF for multiple product views, Active Server Pages (ASP), 2-dimensional interactive
Flash, and Access for the website survey. The main purpose of this image survey system is to
explore the target user groups’ preferences toward product form. Such an image analytical
system can efficiently generate graphic output for market segmentation for competition products,
preference analysis of target user groups, and quantitative analysis of product form, serving as
references for new product design and marketing in enterprises.

Through the web-based analytic system proposed by the authors, college students from Huafan
University, Taiwan and Kyushu Tokai University Japan were asked to evaluate 27 current
portable pencil sharpener samples in terms of their preferences toward product form of portable
pencil sharpeners. In this system, the user group’s survey data can be updated in real time and
further analyzed in graphics and tables to help researchers investigate product preferences and
target user groups. With diagrams and tables from the system, such quantitative data can help
designers identify the target user group of the competition product and the proper direction for
new product design.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Viewpoints and methods regarding product image analysis, web image survey system, consumer
behavior and market segmentation were reviewed in this study.

In product image analysis, Nagamichi started the so-called emotion engineering or Kansei
engineering where consumer’s feeling and image perception were transformed into product
design elements in the 1970s. These design elements are the product attributes that meet the
consumer’s needs and they are aimed to help reach a harmonic situation of the psychological
and physical status when the product is used. Furthermore, the concept of Kansei Engineering
System in which a design-oriented database was constructed is based on the consumer survey
for designers to control the consumer’s emotional needs and further develop products that meet
the requirements in the market [1]. For modern products, products should be endowed with
added value (in most cases, this indicates the symbolic values) in addition to their concrete
functions. And in the consumerism era, the amount of image and meaning a product can transmit
is closely related to its value.

In terms of product image, a product could communicate with its users through the form attributes
of a product such as lines, color, texture structure and the outer context [2]. And these messages
sent out from a product should be based from the consumer’s points of view. In other words,
images are the product appearance or verbally imagery designers consider suitable from the
user’s needs or feelings. The image of a product might be separated from its functional aspect.
Similarly, Tsai and Ho asserted that designers use some sorts of form language to reshape a
product image and send out messages to the user, forming an automatic communication model
[3]. In such situations, it is due to the designer’s ability in transforming the image in the design
course. Differently put, product form elements are the essence to keep the message of an image,
enabling users to have the same feelings and understand the designers’ intention as well as how
to operate the product. From the above studies, it is clear that product form can transmit image
message and that it is an important factor for a successful product whether a designer can grasp
the image to transmit and bring users’ needs and feelings into control.
International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Volume (1): Issue (2)
15

Shih-Yen Huang & Jih-Shyong Lin
For a designer to get the picture of the image to transmit in a product and control the user’s
needs and feelings, the semantic differential method (SD) is a frequently used technique [4]. It is
an experimental method specially used for the measurement of the meaning of objects. SD is
composed of the concept to measure, the semantic scale, and the subject. The object, image,
and subject form a 3-dimension database and the subject can express their feelings toward
different stimuli in a more complete way. Moreover, Zeisel maintained that based upon the
relationships between design attributes of a product and the user’s perceptions, it is an easy way
for subjects to make their choice and show the differences among different products along the
scale if some verbal descriptions, i.e., the image word pair, is offered [5]. With the affective
factors to product design, systematic data could be generated to help designers grasp the images
they endowed in the product [6]. Moreover, the preference or perceptual evaluation of product
samples with varying attributes can help designers deal with much uncertain information. With
the data obtained, principal factors of the consumers’ abstract emotions or preference can be
extracted and feed-backed to conceptual design. This is a widespread application in the design
field. Many researchers in product form image domain have used the SD method to explore
product images; for example, new product development based on the consumer-oriented
techniques [1], the differences of perceptions between real products and photographic images [7],
the main dimensions for the evaluation of product form [8]. In the above product image studies,
researchers need to collect the subject’s data through SD method and then log in the data for
further statistical analyses such as factor analysis, cluster analysis, and MDS. However, it takes
training to conduct statistical analysis and the interpretation of the output diagrams and tables.
For this reason, such studies are frequently seen in theoretical domain rather than industries and
design houses.

Besides, to simplify the above emotional survey and statistical analysis and to meet the specific
goals in new product design or marketing survey, the semantic differential method was
incorporated with the 2-dimensional design decision tool. The frequently used 2-dimensional
image scale was proposed by Kobayashi in Nippon Color & Design Research Institute [9]. Since
then, it has been a design analytic method frequently used in product development and promotion
by the industry and design houses. The titles along X and Y axes can be changed according to
the design purposes. It uses a visualized and systematic diagram to reach consensus among
participants of a design team and avoid the designer to go astray in the idea development
process. Furthermore, the image analysis is the most popular method used in the design houses
in Taiwan. From a case study of 70 companies, he found that from the 66 companies that used
image scale, 36 companies (54.5%) adopted the 2-dimensional structure [10]. This demonstrates
that the 2-dimensional analytic tool is so important that it has been widely used in the product
design process.

According to the importance of 2-dimensional image scale in product design, it is easy to see
discrepancy between the real market and the design team because most of such studies are
conducted in the design department or R&D team. It is, therefore, essential that we need a 2-
dimensional image survey system that is objective and suitable for quantitative analysis in
enterprises, design houses, and academic units.

In terms of web-based image survey, Roy and Kodkani integrated database and WWW and made
it possible for each designer in a team to access the survey data through authorized password
[11]. Through a web-based product and process data modeling in concurrent design, the design
process can be efficiently integrated to make decisions on line [12]. In recent year, many studies
have used the web technique to improve the shortcomings of traditional image scale survey. For
example, in a study of the production of Multidimensional Scaling questionnaire, Tu and Chen
adopted the world-wide web platform to construct the survey. From the WWW platform, it is
possible for designers to generate website questionnaire and conduct the survey on line and
automatically collect the data they need in the format of Java Apple or dynamic HTML [13]. In
addition, Ikudame and Harada proposed a survey system for image data by Hypercard 2.2. Such a
system can be set to compare product images according to some specific images and gather
International Journal of Business Research and Management (IJBRM), Volume (1): Issue (2)
16

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