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LAYMAN’s Guidebook on how Develop a Small Hydro Site

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Free engineering ebook handbook: LAYMANs Guidebook on how Develop a Small Hydro Site.pdf, useful information to develop mycro hydro power, water resource engineering
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by hamed on August 29th, 2010 at 02:07 pm
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A handbook prepared under contract for the
Commission of the European Communities,
Directorate-General for Energy by
European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA)


The drawing on the cover, published by courtesy
of INIC (Instituto Nacional de Investigaçao
Cientifica), Portugal it is based on a photography
appeared in the book, "Sistemas de Muagem",
written by Fernando Gallano, Ernesto Veiga de
Oliveira and Benjamin Pereira.

ADDRESS WHERE TO GET FURTHER INFORMATION
DG XVII
European Commision
200 rue de la Loi
B-1049 Bruselas
Bélgica
Fax: +32-2-295 0150
E-Mail: info@bxl.dg17.cec.be
World Wide Web http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg17/dg17home.htm
Published books DG XVII - 97/010.
LEGAL NOTICE: Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of
the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information

D I R E C T O R A T E G E N E R A L F O R E N E R G Y ( D G X V I I )
LAYMAN'S HANDBOOK
ON HOW TO DEVELOP A SMALL HYDRO SITE
(Second Edition)
June 1998
E U R O P E A N C O M M I S I O N

AUTHOR
Celso Penche
Dr Ingeniero de Minas (U.Politécnica de Madrid)

Introduction
This handbook, an updated version of the original “Layman’s Handbook on how to develop a Small Hydro Site”,
published by the Commission in 1993, has been written, in the frame of the ALTENER programme, under
contract with the Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General for Energy, DG XVII). It has
not been designed to replace professional expertise but it is hoped it is comprehensive enough to advise
laymen on all necessary procedures that should be followed to develop a site. However its content includes
enough technical information, so a non-specialist engineer would be able to produce a primary feasibility report.
Hydraulic engineering is based on the principles of fluid mechanics. However until now there does not exist,
and probably never will, a general methodology for the mathematical analysis of the movement of the fluids.
Based on the large amount of accumulated experience there exists many empirical relationships to achieve
practical engineering solutions with the movement of the water, the fluid that concerns hydroelectricity. Chapter
2, based on part of the original chapter 5 – written by Eric Wilson - is devoted to this subject.
All hydroelectric generation depends on falling water. The first step to develop a site must address the
availability of an adequate water supply. Chapter 3 is entirely devoted to this subject, and particularly to
comment on the European Atlas of Small Scale Hydropower Potential, developed by the Institute of
Hydrology in the UK, on behalf of ESHA and with the financial aid of the DG XVII.
Experience shows that many small hydro plants have failed because they were poorly designed, built or
operated. Most of these failures – seepage under the weir, open channel slides – occurred through a lack of
proper geological studies of the site. Chapter 4 incorporates guidelines on such studies.
Hydraulic structures and ancillaries represent almost fifty per cent of the investment cost. If poorly designed
they will require such high maintenance costs that the investment will become unprofitable. Chapter 5 is
devoted to these structures.
Turbines transform the potential energy of water to mechanical rotational energy, which in turn is transformed
into electrical energy in the generators. Chapter 6 is devoted to the study of turbines and generators and to the
devices employed to control them.
Although since the publication of the first edition of the Layman’s Handbook many sites have been developed in
the E.U, the installed capacity would be greater if the administrative procedures to authorise the use of water
had been simpler. Many hundreds of authorisation requests are pending approval, mainly because of
supposed conflict with the environment. Chapter 7, “Environmental impact and its mitigation”, intends to provide
a few guidelines to help the designer to propose mitigating measures that can be easily agreed with the
licensing authorities. The various papers presented to HIDROENERGIA and more specifically to the European
Workshop on THERMIE “Strategies to overcome the environmental burden of small hydro and wind energies”
that was held at Vitoria in October 1996, constitute the basis of this chapter.
An investor decides to develop a small hydro site in order to obtain a reasonable profit. To do that his decision
should be based on sound economic principles. Chapter 8 shows how the financial mathematics can help to
calculate the cost of the kWh produced annually, and to compare different possible alternatives for the scheme.
Chapter 9 reviews the administrative procedures and buy-back tariffs nowadays in force. Unfortunately the
trend toward deregulation of the electricity market makes the situation very volatile, preventing accurate
reporting of the market from an institutional viewpoint.


Acknowledgements
Although based on the original version, the handbook has been entirely rewritten. The original chapter 5 has
been split in two: chapter 2, a fundamental treatment of engineering hydraulics, and chapter 3 devoted
exclusively to the water resource and to the possibilities offered by the European Atlas of Small Scale
Hydropower Potential. The Institute of Hydrology (IH) in the UK, on behalf of ESHA, has developed this
computer program, with the financial aid of the DG XVII, as a tool to enable potential investors to define the
hydrological potential, for any ungauged site within the European Union. We acknowledge the co-operation of
IH, and more specifically of Gwyn Rees and Karen Kroker, by allowing us to reproduce entire paragraphs of the
“Technical Reference and User Guide” of the Atlas.
.
Two well known experts, Bryan Leyland from Australia and Freddy Isambert from France, presented to
HIDROENERGIA 95 two papers, dealing with the topic “lessons from failures”, describing several schemes
that, due to a lack of adequate geological studies, failed outrageously during its operation. On the base of
these experiences a new chapter, Chapter 4, devoted to the technologies employed to study the site in depth,
was introduced. This chapter has been almost entirely written by Alberto Foyo, Professor of Ground Engineer-
ing at the E. T. S. I. C. C. P, Polytechnic Cantabria University.
Other sources of inspiration in the composition of the handbook were “Micro Hydropower Source” by R.
Inversin (NRCA 1986), the volume 4 of the “Engineering Guidelines for Planning and Designing Hydroelectric
Developments” (ASCE 1990) and “Hydraulic Engineering Systems” (N.C.Hwang and C.E. Hita 1987). The
authorisation by Inversin to reproduce the Appendix X of his book, dealing with the physical description of the
waterhammer phenomena, is much appreciated. We appreciate the spirit of collaboration of the authors of
hydraulic papers; all of them gave their authorisation to reproduce their papers-
We should thank Eric Wilson for his efforts to correct the English text, both for style and content. If any errors
are still present it will be unquestionably the fault of the author.
And finally our acknowledgement to President Henri Baguenier, who solicited the support of the DG XVII to
commission the writing of the handbook and to facilitate the relationship with the ALTENER Committee.
Celso Penche
June 1988.

x
Manual de pequeña hidráulica
Table of Contents
1.Introduction
1.0 A free fuel resource potentially everlasting. ................................................................................................ 15
1.1 Definition of small hydropower.................................................................................................................... 16
1.2 Site configurations ...................................................................................................................................... 16
1.2.1 Run-of-river schemes .......................................................................................................................... 17
1.2.2 Schemes with the powerhouse at the base of a dam .......................................................................... 19
1.2.3 Schemes integrated with an irrigation canal ........................................................................................ 20
1.2.4 Schemes integrated in a water abstraction system ............................................................................. 21
1.3 Planning a small hydropower scheme ......................................................................................................... 22
2. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering
2.0 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. 25
2.1 Water flow in pipes ...................................................................................................................................... 25
2.1.1 Los of head due to friction ................................................................................................................... 27
2.1.2 Loss of head due to turbulence ........................................................................................................... 36
2.1.2.1 Trash rack (or screen) losses ......................................................................................................... 36
2.1.2.2 Loss of head by sudden contraction or expansion ......................................................................... 37
2.1.2.3 Loss of head in bends .................................................................................................................... 39
2.1.2.4 Loss of head through valves .......................................................................................................... 40
2.1.3 Transient flow ...................................................................................................................................... 41
2.2 Water flow in open channels ....................................................................................................................... 44
2.2.1 Clasification of open channel flows ..................................................................................................... 44
2.3.2 Uniform flow in open channels ........................................................................................................... 45
2.2.3 Principles of energy in open channel flows ......................................................................................... 46
2.3 Computer programs .................................................................................................................................... 51
Bibliography....................................................................................................................................................... 53
3 The water resource and its potential
3.0 Introduction............................................................................................................... ................................... 55
3.2 Evaluating streamflows by discharge measurements .................................................................................. 57
3.2.1 Velocity-area method ................................................................................................................................ 57
3.2.1.1 Measuring the cross-sectional area................................................................................................ 59
3.2.1.2 Measuring the velocity .................................................................................................................... 59
3.2.3 Weir method ........................................................................................................................................ 64
3.2.4 Slope-area method .............................................................................................................................. 65
3.3 Streamflow characteristics........................................................................................................................... 66
3.3.1 Hydrograph ......................................................................................................................................... 66
3.3.2 Flow Duration Curves (FDC) ............................................................................................................... 66
3.3.3 Standardised FDC curves ................................................................................................................... 68
3.3.4 Evaluating streamflows at ungauged sites .......................................................................................... 68
3.3.5 European Atlas of Small Scale Hydropower Resources ...................................................................... 70
3.3.6 FDC’s for particular months or other periods ....................................................................................... 72
3.3.7 Water pressure or ‘head’ ..................................................................................................................... 72
3.3.7.1 Measurement of gross head ........................................................................................................... 72
3.3.7.2 Estimation of net head .................................................................................................................... 72
3.4 Residual, reserved or compensation flow .................................................................................................... 74
3.5 Estimation of plant capacity and energy output ........................................................................................... 75
3.5.1 How the head varies with the flow and its influence on the turbine capacity ....................................... 78
3.5.2 Another methodology to compute power and annual energy output ................................................... 79
3.5.3 Peaking operation ............................................................................................................................... 80
3.6 Firm energy ................................................................................................................................................. 81
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 83

Document Outline

  • 1.1 Definition of small hydropower
  • 1.2 Site configurations
  • 1.2.1 Run-of-river schemes
  • 1.2.2 Schemes with the powerhouse at the base of a dam
  • 1.2.3 Schemes integrated with an irrigation canal
  • 1.2.4 Schemes integrated in a water abstraction system
  • 1.3 Planning a small hydropower scheme
  • 2. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering
  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Water flow in pipes
  • 2.1.1 Los of head due to friction
  • 2.1.2 Loss of head due to turbulence
  • 2.1.2.1 Trash rack (or screen) losses
  • 2.1.2.2 Loss of head by sudden contraction or expansion
  • 2.1.2.3 Loss of head in bends
  • 2.1.2.4 Loss of head through valves
  • 2.1.3 Transient flow
  • 2.2 Water flow in open channels
  • 2.2.1 Clasification of open channel flows
  • 2.3.2 Uniform flow in open channels
  • 2.2.3 Principles of energy in open channel flows
  • 2.3 Computer programs
  • Bibliography
  • 3 The water resource and its potential
  • 3.2 Evaluating streamflows by discharge measurements
  • 3.2.1 Velocity-area method
  • 3.2.1.1 Measuring the cross-sectional area
  • 3.2.1.2 Measuring the velocity
  • 3.2.3 Weir method
  • 3.2.4 Slope-area method
  • 3.3 Streamflow characteristics
  • 3.3.1 Hydrograph
  • 3.3.2 Flow Duration Curves (FDC)
  • 3.3.3 Standardised FDC curves
  • 3.3.4 Evaluating streamflows at ungauged sites
  • 3.3.5 European Atlas of Small Scale Hydropower Resources
  • 3.3.6 FDC's for particular months or other periods
  • 3.3.7 Water pressure or 'head'
  • 3.3.7.1 Measurement of gross head
  • 3.3.7.2 Estimation of net head
  • 3.4 Residual, reserved or compensation flow
  • 3.5 Estimation of plant capacity and energy output
  • 3.5.1 How the head varies with the flow and its influence on the turbine capacity
  • 3.5.2 Another methodology to compute power and annual energy output
  • 3.5.3 Peaking operation
  • 3.6 Firm energy
  • Bibliography
  • 4. Site evaluation methodologies
  • 4.0 Introduction.
  • 4.1 Cartography
  • 4.2 Geotechnical studies
  • 4.2.1 Methodologies to be used
  • Photogeology.
  • Geomorphologic maps
  • Laboratory analysis
  • Geophysical studies
  • Structural geological analysis
  • Direct investigations. Borehole drilling
  • 4.2.2 Methodologies. The study of a practical case.
  • 4.2.2.1 The weir
  • 4.2.2.2 The open channel
  • 4.2.2.3 The channel in tunnel.
  • 4.2.2.4 The powerhouse
  • 4.3 Learning from failures
  • Ruahihi canal failure (New Zealand)
  • La Marea canal failure (Spain)
  • Seepage under a weir (France)
  • The hydraulic canal in a low-head 2 MW scheme
  • 5. Hydraulic structures
  • 5.1.2.1 Devices to raise the water level.
  • 5.1.3 Spillways
  • 5.1.4 Energy dissipators
  • 5.1.5 Low level outlets
  • 5.1.6 River diversion during construction
  • 5.2 Waterways
  • 5.2.1 Intake structures
  • 5.2.1.1 Water intake types
  • 5.2.1.2 Intake location
  • 5.2.2 Power intake
  • 5.2.3 Mechanical equipment
  • 5.2.3.1 Debris management in intakes
  • 5.2.3.2 Sediment management in intakes
  • 5.2.3.3 Gates and valves
  • 5.2.4 Open channels
  • 5.2.4.1 Design and dimensioning
  • 5.2.4.2 Circumventing obstacles
  • 5.2.5 Penstocks
  • 5.2.5.1 Arrangement and material selection for penstocks.
  • 5.2.5.2 Hydraulic design and structural requirements 141
  • Penstock diameter.
  • Wall thickness
  • 5.2.5.3 Saddles, supporting blocks and expansion joints
  • 5.2.6 Tailraces
  • 6 Electromechanical equipment
  • 6.0 Powerhouse
  • 6.1 Hydraulic turbines
  • 6.1.1 Classification criteria
  • 6.1.1.1 On the basis of the flow regime in the turbine
  • 6.1.1.1.1 Impulse turbines
  • Pelton turbines
  • Turgo turbines
  • Cross-flow turbines
  • 6.1.1.1.2 Reaction turbines
  • Kaplan and propeller turbines
  • Pumps working as turbines
  • 6.1.1.2 On the basis of the specific speed
  • 6.1.2 Turbine selection criteria
  • 6.1.3 Turbine efficiency
  • 6.1.4 Turbine performance characteristics
  • 6.1.5 Turbine performance under new site conditions
  • 6.2 Speed increasers
  • 6.2.1 Speed increaser types
  • Parallel-shaft
  • Bevel gears: 183
  • Epicycloidal: 184
  • 6.2.2 Speed increaser design
  • 6.2.3 Speed increaser maintenance
  • 6.3 Generators
  • 6.3.1 Generator configurations
  • 6.3.2 Exciters
  • 6.3.3 Voltage regulation and synchronisation
  • 6.3.3.1 Asynchronous generators
  • 6.3.3.2 Synchronous generators
  • 6.4 Turbine control
  • 6.4.1 Speed Governors
  • 6.5 Switchgear equipment
  • 6.6 Automatic control
  • 6.7 Ancillary electrical equipment
  • 6.7.1 Plant service transformer
  • 6.7.2 DC control power supply
  • 6.7.3 Headwater and tailwater recorders
  • 6.7.4 Outdoor substation
  • 6.8 Examples
  • Bibliography
  • 7. Environmental impact and its mitigation
  • 7.0 Introduction
  • 7.1 Burdens and impacts identification
  • 7.2 Impacts in the construction phase
  • 7.2.1 Reservoirs
  • 7.2.2 Water intakes, open canals, penstocks, tailraces, etc.
  • 7.3 Impacts arising from the operation of the scheme
  • 7.3.1 Sonic impacts
  • 7.3.2 Landscape impact
  • 7.3.3 Biological impacts
  • 7.3.4 Archaeological and cultural objects
  • 7.4 Impacts from transmission lines
  • 7.4.1 Visual impact
  • 7.4.2 Health impact
  • 7.4.3 Birds collisions
  • 7.5 Conclusions
  • 8 Economic Analysis
  • 8.2 Financial mathematics
  • 8.3 Methods of economic evaluation
  • 8.3.1 Static methods (which do not take the opportunity cost into consideration)
  • 8.3.2 Dynamic methods
  • 8.3.3 Examples
  • 8.4 Financial analysis of some European schemes
  • 9. Administrative procedures
  • 9.0 Introduction
  • 9.1 Economic issues
  • 9.3 How to support renewable energy under deregulation*
  • 9.5.1 Set asides
  • 9.2.2 Emission Taxes, Caps and Credits
  • 9.2.3 Green pricing.
  • 9.2.4 Imposed tariffs
  • 9.2.5. Miscellaneous
  • 9.3 Technical aspects
  • 9.4 Procedural issues
  • 9.5 Environmental constraints
  • GLOSSARY

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