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Letters and Sounds Information for Parents February 2009 The way that spelling and reading is taught in schools has changed recently as a result of the Jim Rose report. It…
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Letters and Sounds Information for Parents February 2009 The way that spelling and reading is taught in schools has changed recently as a result of the Jim Rose report. It is now a requirement that reception children are taught 20 mins of letters and sounds per day. It is recommended that Year 1 and 2 children also receive 20mins per day. As a result of the findings from this report Phonics and reading skills are now taught in 6 distinct phases. These phases are set out in the letters and sounds document. Phonics at a glance Skills of segmentation and blending Knowledge of the alphabetic code. Phonics Consists of: Identifying sounds in spoken words Recognising the common spellings of each phoneme. Blending phonemes into words for reading. Segmenting words into phonemes for spelling. The Phases Explained The ‘Letters and Sounds’ document is split into 6 distinct phases. Phase 1 (pre school) * Showing an awareness of rhyme and alliteration. * Distinguishing between sounds in the environment and phonemes. * Exploring and experimenting with sounds and words. * Discriminating speech sounds in words. * Beginning to orally blend and segment phonemes. Phase 2 (Reception 6 wks ) Using common consonants and vowels. Blending for reading and segmenting for spelling simple cvc words. Understanding that words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemes. Letter sets (phase 2 up to 6wks ) Set 5 - h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss, Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation. Phonemes (sounds) should be articulated clearly and precisely. http://tinyurl.com/azfqc3 http://tinyurl.com/azfqc3 Phase 3 (Reception up to 12wks ) Knowing one grapheme for each of the 43 phonemes. There are 43 phonemes in the English language! Phase 3 cont. Reading and spelling a wide range of cvc words. Using all letters and less frequent consonant digraphs and some long vowel phonemes. ear, air, ure, er, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ai, ee, igh, oa, oo Phase 4 ( Reception/Year 1 up to 6wks ) This is a consolidation unit. There are no new graphemes to learn. Reading and spelling of tricky words continues. Segmenting adjacent consonants in words and applying this in spelling. Blending adjacent consonants in words and applying this skill when reading unfamiliar texts. Phase 5 ( throughout Year 1) Reading phonetically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words. Using alternative ways of pronouncing and spelling the graphemes corresponding to the long vowel phonemes. Spelling complex words using phonetically plausible attempts . ay, ou, ie, ea, oy, ir, ue, aw, wh, ph, ew, oe, au, a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e. Alternative graphemes for: i, o, c, g, u, ow, ie, ea, er, a, y, ch, ou Phase 6 (Year 2 throughout ) Recognising phonic irregularities and becoming more secure with less common grapheme – phoneme correspondences. Applying phonic skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of complex words. Phase 6 cont. Introducing and teaching the past tense Investigating and learning how to add suffixes Teaching spelling long words Finding and learning the difficult bits in words In addition to this, each the week the children learn ‘tricky’ spelling words (those that are not spelt phonetically) and key sight vocabulary. The key sight word list has also changed. There are now 300 words to learn. (100 in Rec/Y1 and an additional 200 in year 2) The children always work within the phase that is appropriate to their level of learning. They are assessed regularly and groupings are sorted accordingly. Therefore the suggested model of year group and corresponding phase, does not always go hand in hand with the year group that your child is actually in. Some Definitions How many phonemes can you hear in cat ? This is the smallest unit of sound in a word. The grapheme could be 1 letter, 2 letters or more! We refer to these as sound buttons . t ai igh These are the letters that represent the phoneme. Put the sound buttons under these words jumper crawl foil broom toast slight crayon speed This is where it gets tricky! Phonemes are represented by graphemes. A grapheme can consist of 1, 2 or more letters. A phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way ( c at, k ennel, ch oir) The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme ( m e , m e t) How many phonemes are in each of these words? pencil chair jumper cow flop bleed Phonemes Word A word always has the same number of phonemes and graphemes! Grapheme Key Vocabulary 2 letters making one sound ( ai, ee, oo) 3 letters making one sound ( igh , dge ) Where the two letters are not adjacent Blending (for reading) Recognising the letter sounds in a written word e.g c-u-p sh-ee-p. Merging them into the correct order to pronounce the word cup and sheep . Segmenting (for spelling) Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m , s-t-or-k) and writing down letters for each sound (phoneme) to form the word him and stork. Here are the phases. Where Can I Go To Find Out More? www.nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/84969 www.sparklebox.co.uk/cll/lettersandsounds/ This is great for some activities that you can do at home. Useful web sites www.coxhoe.durham.sch.uk/Curriculum/Literacy.htm www.bbc.co.uk/schools/websites/4_11/site/literacy.shtml www.ictgames.com/literacy.html
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