Larry Steven Londre Marketing, IMC, Advertising, Promotion, Media and More. 2009
Marketing, the Marketing Mix (4P’s), and the Nine P’s
is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution
of ideas, goods, services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. (Kotler,
is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through
creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. (Kotler)
is getting the right product or service to the right people (target market), at the right time, at
the right place, at the right price with the right communications and promotion.
is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and
exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The previous
is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating,
and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the
organization and its stakeholders. (In 2008, the American Marketing Association unveiled their new,
revised definition of marketing, used as the official definition in books, by marketing professionals and
taught in universities.)
The American Marketing Association revisits the definition for marketing every five years in a disciplined
effort to reflect on the state of the marketing field. This process, as laid out in the Association's bylaws, is
guided by a committee whose members represent a cross-section of the marketing industry. The
committee formed in late 2006, under the leadership of Donald R. Lehmann, the George E. Warren
Professor of Business at Columbia Business School in New York.
is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and
distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy the perceived needs,
wants and objectives of individuals and organizations. (Arens, Weigold, Arens: 12th edition, 2009) Marketing
is both a set of activities performed by organizations and a social process. Micro-marketing is
the performance of activities that seek to accomplish an organization’s objectives by anticipating
customer or client needs and directing a flow of need satisfying goods and services from producer to
customer or client. (Perreault and McCarthy ’05)
The purpose of Marketing
is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to
make more profit.
is the combination of four elements, called the 4P’s
(Product, Price, Promotion and
Place), that every company has the option of adding, subtracting, or modifying in order to create a
desired marketing strategy.
9 P’s (I have a pending copyright for this concept, the Nine P’s, which augments the Marketing 4P’s by
1. Planning or Marketing Process:
To develop and transform marketing objectives to marketing
strategies to tactics, marketing
management must make basic decisions on marketing targets,
marketing mix, marketing budgets/expenditures and marketing allocations. Dividing the total
marketing budget among the various
tools in the marketing mix and for the various products,
channels, promotion, media and sales areas.
Larry Steven Londre Marketing, IMC, Advertising, Promotion, Media and More. 2009 2. People/Prospects (Target Market)
A product focusing on a specific target market
contrasts sharply with one following the
marketing strategy of mass marketing.
Defining a target market requires market segmentation, the process of segmenting the
entire market as a whole and separating it into manageable units based on demographics,
geographics, psychographics and behavior characteristics.
The market segmentation process includes:
• Determining the characteristics of segments in the target market.
• Then separating these segments in the market based on these characteristics.
• Checking to see whether any of this market segments are large enough to support
the organization's product.
• Once a target market is chosen, the organization can develop its marketing
strategies to target this market. 3. Product
: The goods and service combination the firm offers to the target market, including variety
of product mix, features, designs, packaging, sizes, services, warrantees and return policies.
product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or
consumption that might satisfy a want or need. (Kotler)
service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially
intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. (Kotler)
• “Product” includes packaging, as a subset of the total offering. Brand managers use
packaging as a badge, enhancing the product’s value. Here’s an example: In fall 2008,
McDonald's scrapped and changed its package design across 118 countries, 56
languages. Packaging can increase the perceptions about the quality of the product.
• A Product or service also should have Purpose, which is discovering the product’s real
value, use, difference, reason, or function for the consumer and user. 4. Price
: All aspects regarding pricing. The price consumers are willing to pay. Retail
price/wholesale, discounts, trade-in allowances, quantity discounts, credit terms, sales and
payment periods. 5. Promotion
: The communication element includes personal and non-personal communication
activities. Activities that communicate the merits of the overall product, which includes:
• Personal Selling/ Sales Force
• Advertising--Mass or nonpersonal selling: TV, radio, magazines, newspaper, outdoor/out-
of-home Advertising is structured and composed non personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services, and ideas) by identified sponsors through various media.
(Arens, Weingold, Arens, 11th edition of Contemporary Advertising, 2008)
Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods,
or services by an identified sponsor. (Kotler & Armstrong, 2009). Ads can be a cost-
effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build a brand preference or to educate
Promotion--Trade deals, samples, coupons, premiums, tie-ins, p-o-p, displays,
sweepstakes, allowances, trade shows, sales rep contests, events/experiences and more.
Larry Steven Londre Marketing, IMC, Advertising, Promotion, Media and More. 2009
Materials--Booklets, catalogs, brochures, films, sales kits, promotional products
and annual reports.
Marketing-- direct mail, database management, catalogs, telemarketing, and direct-
response ads. Includes Interactive/ Internet
Relations--press releases, publicity. Securing editorial space, as opposed to paid
space--usually in print or broadcast media. Promote or “hype” a product, service, idea,
place, person or organization, internal communication, lobbying. PR involves a variety of
programs designed to promote or protect a company’s image or individual products. 6. Place/Distribution:
The company’s activities that make the product available, using distribution
and trade channels, coverage, assortments, locations, inventory and transportation
characteristics and alternatives. Typical supply chain consists of four links in the chain:
Producer/Factory/Manufacturer, Distributor, Wholesaler, Retailer supplying the consumer and
user. 7. Partners
: A joint partnership; the joint relationships, partnerships and alliances
. The legal
relationship existing between two parties; A relationship resembling a legal partnership and
usually involving close cooperation between parties having specific and joint rights and
responsibilities as a common enterprise. One of the heavy timbers that strengthen a ship’s deck
to support a mast. Usually plural or “Partners,” not Partner.
In Kotler: Value chains, of suppliers, distributors and customers. Partnering with specific
suppliers or distributors create a value-delivery network; also called a supply chain
Partnership Marketing; Partner Relationship Management. 8. Presentation: The acts of presenting any of the 9P’s to your customers, suppliers, clients, or partners.
A symbol or image that represents something; A descriptive or persuasive account
(as a sales person of his product). Something set forth for the attention of mind.
9. Passion: Intense, driving or overmastering feelings, Emotion.
The emotions as
distinguished from reason; A strong liking for or devotion to some activity; Deep interest in your
partnership/presentation of any of the 9P’s to any target or partner.
Advertising is structured and composed nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid
for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services) and ideas by identified
sponsors through various media. (Arens, Weigold, Arens: 2008)
is a paid-mass-mediated attempt to persuade.
(O’Guinn, Allen, Semenik)
is a marketing function that identifies products (goods and services) and their source, and
differentiates them from all other products. (William Arens) Integrated Marketing
is when all departments of a firm work together to serve the needs of the
Integrated Marketing Communications
(IMC) is defined as a concept of marketing communications
planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive marketing planning that evaluates the
strategic roles of a variety of communications disciplines---for example, advertising, direct response,
sales promotion, and public relations---and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency,
and maximum communications impact. (Belch and Belch)
Larry Steven Londre Marketing, IMC, Advertising, Promotion, Media and More. 2009 IMC
is the process of using promotional tools in a unified way so that a synergistic communications effect
is created. (O’Guinn, Allen, Semenik)
is the series of decisions involved in the delivery of an advertising message to
prospective purchasers and/or users of a product or service. (Belch and Belch) Promotion
is the coordination of all seller-initiated efforts to set-up channels of information and
persuasion to sell goods and services or to promote an idea. (Belch and Belch)
includes advertising, sales promotion, public relation/ publicity, personal selling, plus
direct marketing and Internet/interactive media. Direct marketing is direct mail, mail order catalogs,
database marketing, direct selling, telemarketing, and direct response ads through direct mail, the
Internet, and various media. (Belch and Belch) Product placement
advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers or their agencies using
real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of
an economic exchange. When featuring a product is not part of an economic exchange, it is called a
product plug. Product placement appears in plays, film, television shows and series, music videos, video
games and books. Product placement occurs with the inclusion of a brand's logo in the show or shot, or
a favorable mention or appearance of a product. This is done without disclosure, and under the premise
that it is a natural part of the work. Most major movie releases today contain product placements. The
most common form is in movie and television placements and more recently computer and video games. Push Strategy
involves the manufacturer using the sales force and trade promotional tools and money
to induce intermediaries to carry, promote and sell the product to end users.
involves the manufacturer using advertising and sales promotion tools to persuade
consumers to ask intermediaries for the product, thus inducing the intermediaries to order and stock the
product or products.
Larry Steven Londre
Londre Marketing Consultants, LLC
11072 Cashmere Street, Los Angeles, CA 90049
310.889.0221 fax www. LondreMarketing.com
©Larry Steven Londre, Londre Marketing Consultants, LLC 2009