A Religion Profile from International Students, Inc.
Marxism: An Overview
Marxist ideology draws its inspiration from the writings of
proposed communal ownership on property by the ruling class
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It stresses the need for a
in The Republic. During medieval times, many religious
political and economic system that abolishes private property,
orders practiced the commonality of goods. Thomas More in
and in which all materials goods are held in common by all
his book Utopia (1516) proposed common ownership of
people. As we shall see, Marxism involves several areas of
thought, including not only economics and politics, but also
ethics, history, human nature, and religion. It is a total “world
Several factors existing in the late 1700s and early 1800s
provided the impetus for an increase in this type of thinking.
One was the French Revolution which emphasized the
It is not difficult to understand why Marxist thinking appeals
equality of all people. Another was the Romantic Movement
to so many people. We live in a world of economic extremes.
which fostered a high view of human nature and the
The disparity between the rich and the poor is great.
perfectibility of people and society. A third was the Industrial
Understandably, then, Marxism’s promise of economic
Revolution which thrived on a large unskilled labor force in
equality is attractive to many who desire to eliminate such
the factories. Many of these laborers worked and lived under
extremes. Marxism also appeals to those looking for hope and
extremely difficult conditions.
meaning in life but are disillusioned with other ideologies.
In light of the influence of these factors, socialist thinking was
No one knows how many people in the world are committed
found in many writers of the early 1800s. Among these were
to Marxism. But there can be no denying that it had an
Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Etienne Cabet, Robert
unsurpassed influence on humankind during the 20th century.
Owen (who founded New Harmony, Indiana), Louis Blanc,
Although it has suffered severe political and economic
Pierre Proudhon, Prosper Enfanten, Victor Considerant, and
setbacks in recent years (particularly in the former Soviet
Union and Eastern Europe), Marxism remains a viable and
appealing ideology to many.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Even in American universities, Marxism wields tremendous
Karl Marx was born May 5, 1818, at Trier, Prussia, to
influence. An article in U.S. News and World Report, January
Heinrich and Henriette Marx. His father was a lawyer. Both
25, 1982, stated that there were 10,000 Marxist professors on
his parents were Jews, having descended from a long line of
America’s campuses. An article in the August 29, 1989,
rabbis. However, in order to continue his law practice in a
Denver Post stated that as many as 90 percent of faculty
“Christian” environment, Heinrich converted to Lutheranism
members at some Midwestern universities are Marxists. The
in 1816. Karl and his siblings were baptized in1824.
influence of these professors on the thinking of students in
U.S. universities should not be underestimated.
During his years in school at Trier, Marx wrote a paper on
John 15 concerning the importance of union with Christ. In it
History of Marxism
he said, “Union with Christ bestows inner exaltation,
consolation in suffering, calm assurance, and a heart which is
open to love of mankind, to all that is noble, to all that is
great, not out of ambition, not through the desire of fame, but
Throughout history there have been people who have proposed
only because of Christ.” (Geisler, 68). His school records
ideas similar to those of Karl Marx. In the 300s B.C., Plato
show that Marx was “of evangelical faith” and that his “moral
behavior towards superiors and fellow pupils was good”
during his life. His works were not widely read until after his
(Mazlish, 45). Marx identified at least externally with the
death. There were only six people at his funeral. The closing
words of Engels’ oration at his funeral, however, have proven
true: “His name will endure through the ages, and so also his
In 1835, Marx went to the University of Bonn, and a year later
work!” (Sowell, 186).
to the University of Berlin. After completing his work in
philosophy at the University of Berlin, his dissertation was
Marxism after Marx
finally accepted by the University of Jena, which granted
Marx his Ph.D. in 1841. By the time he had started his
Though Marx and Engels laid the foundation for the ideology
university education, he was an atheist. While there, he was
which became known as Marxism, its development was
influenced by Ludwig Feurerbach’s critique of religion as a
shaped by a number of other writers in the late 19th and early
creation of man, as well as by Bruno Bauer and Richard
20th centuries. In 1889, at the meeting of the Second
Strauss (the latter said Jesus never existed). As a student he
International Workingman’s Association in Paris, a conflict
identified with the “Young Hegelians,” the liberal branch of
arose between Karl Kautsky and Eduard Bernstein. The latter
the followers of Hegel.
believed that a gradual approach was better than the
revolutionary doctrine propounded by Marx. He believed the
Though Marx hoped to obtain a teaching position, his liberal
political and economic system could be changed gradually.
political views forced him to pursue a career in journalism. In
Those who followed Bernstein became known as
1843, he married Jenny von Westphalen, who was from an
“Revisionists.” Modern “Eurocommunism” represented this
aristocratic family in Trier. That same year they moved to
line of thinking. Kautsky, on the other hand, defended the
Paris where Marx wrote briefly for a newspaper. There they
need for revolution to institute socialism. He became the
came into contact with many radical thinkers. Among them
leading theoretician of orthodox Marxism in the late 19th
was Friedrich Engels (son of a German industrialist), who
would become Karl’s lifelong friend and collaborator.
No one influenced the future of the Marxist more than V.I.
Between 1845 and 1848, the Marxes moved several times
Lenin. He emerged in the early 20th century as leader of the
between various countries in Europe. In 1848, Marx and
Bolshevik wing of the Social Democratic Party in Russia. It
Engels published The Communist Manifesto for the
was because of his leadership that the Communists came to
Communist League (composed mostly of intellectuals and
power in Russia in 1917. He differed from Marx in at least the
professionals). It was a summons to revolution. This estab-
following respects: First, he believed that it was necessary for
lished them as the leading theoreticians of the Communist
the Communist Party to take control of the revolution rather
than expecting the working class to instigate it on its own. He
also believed that the party would need to take tight control of
In 1849, Marx and Engels moved to England. Engels went to
socialist society after the revolution. Second, he believed that
work for his father’s factory in Manchester. The Marxes lived
capitalism had not disintegrated, as Marx predicted, because
in London, where they spent most of the remainder of their
of its imperialistic exploitation of the third world. Thus, he
lives in poverty. Marx’s only regular income was as a foreign
believed that a communist revolution would take place in a
correspondent for the New York Tribune. Most of the rest of
non-industrialized society like Russia rather than in
their income came from periodic gifts from Engels.
industrialized countries like Great Britain or the U.S. Since
1917, the Communist Movement has been more accurately
Marx devoted his life to studying at the British Museum and
defined as Marxism-Leninism.
writing on a variety of themes, particularly economics. In
1858, he published Outlines for a Critique of Political
After Lenin died in 1924, Josef Stalin consolidated control
Economy. In 1864, he emerged as leader of the First
over the Communist Party, and eventually became Head of
International Workingman’s Association. In 1867, Marx
State. He instituted the most brutal form of totalitarianism
published the first volume of Capital, which was largely a
rule. It is estimated that he was responsible for the liquidation
critique of capitalist economics. The second and third volumes
of 20 million people (Hill, Turbulent Times, 70).
were published by Engels (from Marx’s notes) after his death.
This would prove to be his major life work.
After WWII, communism spread to many other countries
outside the Soviet Union, notably to China and Eastern
Marx continued to write during his later years, but suffered
Europe. The brutality of Stalinism gave rise in the 1950s to a
many serious health problems. He died March 14, 1883. Of his
more humanistic strain of Marxism, particularly in
seven children (one died at childbirth), only two survived him
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. The humanistic Marxists
(both of them later committed suicide) (Mazlish 64).
drew from Marx’s earlier writings the idea that the goal of
socialism was to liberate humankind from a state of
Marx was relatively unknown outside revolutionary circles
“alienation,” and to enable people to fulfill their potential.
They sought a more democratic kind of socialism than did
In other words, economics determines everything about a society,
Stalin. In recent years, most communist societies have
including government, the prevailing ideas, laws, and even reli-
experienced severe economic crises which have led to the
gion. Economics, not ideas, is the determining factor in history.
collapse of communist regimes.
Even “human nature” is determined by the economic system.
Major Ideas of Marxism
Marx believed that the history of society was the history of class
struggle. Ever since the means of production (factories, etc.) have
Marxism is based on a materialistic perception of reality. That is,
been privately owned, society has been divided into competing
Marxists believe there is no supernatural or immaterial realm of
classes. Engels said: “The whole history of mankind…has been a
reality. Reality is fundamentally material. Not that they deny the
history of class struggles, contests between exploiting and
existence of the mind, or reduce thought to a physiological
exploited, ruling and oppressed classes” (DeKoster, 11). One can
process, but they believe the mind is a product of the brain and
easily see that economic and social change comes about as the
does not survive death. Engels said, “The real unity of the world
result of the outworking of the dialectical process at work
consists in its materiality...But if the...question is raised: what then
between the classes. The two opposing classes (representing the
are thought and consciousness, and whence they come, it becomes
thesis and antithesis) conflict until a new social and economic
apparent that they are products of the human brain and that man
order is created (the synthesis).
himself is a product of nature” (quoted in Noebel, 133).
Marx taught that when a given stage in economic history reaches
Marxists thus deny the existence of a Creator and accept the
maturity, the next stage will emerge. It is necessary, however, that
Darwinian theory of evolution. They stress the importance of the
some form of revolution take place to bring about this change.
scientific process in observing reality. They also emphasize the
Marx identified six stages of economic history. First, there was
role of practical experience in testing ideas.
tribal communalism. The tribal group owned all things in
common. Second, there was slave labor. Conquering groups
enslaved their adversaries. Third, there was feudalism. Powerful
landowners granted protection and small portions of land to
Closely associated with their materialism is the Marxist view that
“peasants” who worked the land for them. Fourth, there was
all reality is in the process of change and advancement through
capitalism. Under the capitalist system, the “bourgeois” owned
what they call the dialectic. Georg W.F. Hegel had developed the
the means of production, while the “proletariat” worked for
concept of the dialectic based on idealism (that is, that ideas were
wages. Marx envisioned a fifth stage: socialism. After seizing the
the driving force of reality). Marx and Engels adapted it to their
means of production from the bourgeois, the proletariat would
materialism. They believed that all things are in a process of
institute a dictatorship through which it would cleanse society of
development, and that this development takes place through the
all class distinctions based on private property. The sixth and final
interaction of opposing forces inherent in all things. These forces
stage of history would then appear: communism. As class
are called the “thesis” and “antithesis.” Through the conflict of
distinctions disappeared, the state itself would fade away. Peace
these two forces emerges a new entity called the “synthesis.”
and prosperity would prevail.
Marx and Engels believed that they saw this process at work in
nature (e.g., through the evolution of new species, or through the
Critique of Capitalism
germination of a seed and its growth into a plant). They also
believed it was at work in history, through the economic and
Marx agreed that the capitalist phase was necessary in order to
social advancement of humanity. They saw this as an inevitable
amass the means of production and to develop them to their
process of change, based on scientific social laws.
fullest potential. But he saw elements in capitalism that required
its eventual overthrow The most important was that he felt capi-
talism fostered exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeois. He
saw evidence of this particularly in what he called “surplus
As a result of their materialist philosophy, Marxists hold to what
value.” Adopting the commonly held “labor theory of value” (the
is called economic determinism. Writing in the preface to the
idea that the value of a commodity is determined by the labor
1888 edition of The Communist Manifesto, Engels said:
required to produce it), Marx observed that the capitalist did not
pay the worker what his/her labor was worth, but withheld it for
“In every historical epoch, the prevailing mode of the economic
himself/herself. This difference between the value of the product
production and exchange, and the social organization necessarily
and the wage paid to the worker Marx called “surplus value.” He
following from it, form the basis upon which is built up, and from
viewed the withholding of this “surplus value” as exploitation,
which alone can be explained, the political and intellectual history
and even theft.
of that epoch” (DeKoster, 11).
The second element in capitalism of which Marx was critical was
“Man will become immeasurably stronger, wiser, and
what he called “alienation.” Marx believed that people derive
subtler, his body will become more harmonized, his
meaning in life from their work and from the commodities they
movement more rhythmic, his voice more musical. The
produce. In a real sense, people are what they make.
forms of life will become dynamically dramatic. The
average human type will rise to the heights of an Aristotle,
When the capitalist extracts some of the value of the commodities
a Geothe, or a Marx. And above this ridge new peaks
a worker makes, the worker is alienated from his/her work…from
will rise” (quoted in Lyon, 1841).
part of himself/herself (DeKoster, 32). He also felt that the
worker was alienated from society in that his/her work in a
Another communist thinker, Leonid Ilyichov, put it this way.
capitalist economy was not a “community” effort, but merely an
act for individual survival.
“A builder of communism is a fully developed person,
combining a rich intellect, moral integrity, mature
Marx predicted that capitalist society would eventually collapse.
aesthetic tastes, and physical perfection…people who
This would be due first to the strain of ever more intense
have remade themselves…(with) new attitudes to labour
economic crises. Second, it would be due to the “increasing
and to one’s social obligations, (with) a new kind of
misery of the proletariat.” He believed that the bourgeois would
discipline…, new moral principles…self-discipline, and
become smaller and smaller, but richer and richer, and that the
moral purity” (Bockmuehl, 134).
proletariat would become ever larger, but poorer and poorer. This
“increasing misery” would drive the proletariat to revolt against
Under communism, each person would contribute to society
the bourgeois and to take control of the means of production.
“according to his abilities,” and would receive “in accordance
with his needs.” Marx and Engels even predicted the dissolution
The Final Stage of History
of the traditional family, the institution of a “legalized community
of women,” and the care of all children by society (Noebel, 463-
In contrast to those whom they termed “utopian socialists,” Marx
and Engels not only urged that society ought to be organized
along socialist lines, but said that socialism and communism were
inevitable! Marx believed he had discovered the scientific laws of
history, and that the dialectic insured that socialism would
As atheists, Marxists deny any morality based on God’s character
inevitably arrive. This would not occur, however, until capitalist
and commandments. They believe ethics are based on economics.
society had exhausted its potential for developing the means of
Under capitalism, Marx taught that morality was simply a
production and for exploiting the proletariat. When that occurs,
reflection of “bourgeois class interests.” For the Marxist,
however, the working class will revolt. Marx anticipated that this
whatever advances communism is moral. Lenin stated: “Our
would occur first in the most developed countries. Though he
morality is entirely subordinated to the interests of the class
allowed for the possibility of a peaceful transition from capitalism
struggle of the proletariat” (Bales, 196). This means that lying,
to socialism, Marx believed a violent revolution was nearly
terror, and killing and moral if they advance the communist
inevitable. He did not conceive of capitalists surrendering their
cause. It is no problem if millions of lives must be sacrificed now
power without a fight. Lenin differed with Marx on this point by
to promote the ultimate welfare of a future generation in a
suggesting that capitalism would begin to disintegrate at its
weakest link-in a country like Russia.
Critique of Religion
After the revolution, Marx envisioned a period of socialism under
the oversight of the “dictatorship of the proletariat.” During this
Marx declared himself an atheist in the preface to his doctoral
stage, society would be cleansed of its individualistic elements, a
dissertation, endorsing the statement of David Hume, “In simple
process which could take decades. Marx saw this as an era of
words, I hate the pack of gods” (Bales, 36). He embraced the idea
increasing democracy, characterized by openness and equality.
of Feuerbach that God was simply the creation of people, who
Under Lenin, and particularly under Stalin and later under
projected their own qualities onto an imaginary deity in whom
Mao-tse-Tung in China, it turned out to be anything but
they could find security. He shared the notion that only when
democratic and open!
people give up their belief in God will they truly be free.
Eventually, as society is purged of all its bourgeois elements,
Concerning the origin of religion, Engels said, “The first gods
Marx foresaw the emergence of a purely communist society, in
arose through the personification of natural forces…out of the
which all things would be held in common and in which there
many…gods there arose in the minds of men the idea of the one
would be no need for state. Human nature would be cleansed of
exclusive god” (Bales, 45). It is well known that Marx viewed
any selfish tendencies, and peace and prosperity would prevail.
religion as the “opium of the people.” He believed that religion
This change was described by Leon Trotsky in 1924 in the
was simply a tool of the bourgeois to make the proletariat feel
content with their lot by hoping for a better life in heaven. Marx
said, “The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the
As a result of these convictions about religion, Marxist states have
people is required for their real happiness” (Noebel, 70). Lenin
always opposed religion. At times they have sought to actively
said, “Every religious idea…is unutterable vileness…of the most
destroy it. At other times they have sought to enlist the help of
dangerous kind” (Noebel, 73). In keeping with the notion of
religious people in promoting their cause. They have always at
economic determinism, Marx believed that when the communist
least sought to control religion in their societies, believing that as
utopia arrived, people would no longer feel the need for religion.
the younger generation was educated in science, religion would
Religion would vanish, just as would the state.
Christian Critique of Marxism
Before offering some criticisms of Marxism, it must be
• The observation of a few isolated instances in the past of
acknowledged that some positive values can be ascribed to it.
this process does not warrant the conclusion that the
If it were otherwise, it would be hard to see why anyone
dialectic is an “immutable law” of history, and that the
would be attracted to it at all. First, it must be said that
future is determined by it.
Marxism does not seek to do something about the oppressive
• If the dialectic is a “law” of history, why did the revolution
conditions under which many people have worked and lived.
not occur in an industrialized country?
Second, it recognizes that there have been abuses under the
capitalist system (Geisler, 67).
The question is whether the solution it offers is one that should
• Economic class is not always the most determinative
be endorsed. Marxists often point to the improved living
influence in society. Race and religion are often stronger.
conditions in socialist societies like China and the former
• Different economic classes often unite against a common
Soviet Union. On must ask, however, at what great cost in
terms of human lives? Also, how much better would the
• Economic classes are not always cohesive. They often are
conditions in these countries be if they had benefited from a
fractured by other issues.
Critique of Capitalism
Following is a list of brief responses to the major teachings of
Marxism drawn from many of the sources in the bibliography.
• Capitalist societies did not “self-destruct” as Marx predict-
ed, nor did the proletariat grow more miserable. The condi-
tions of the working class actually improved, due in part to
enlightened social legislation.
• Materialism ignores the evidence for humankind’s
• Marx overlooked the fact that there are many other things
immaterial and immortal nature.
that go into the cost of commodities besides labor (e.g., the
• It ignores the evidence that the universe had a beginning,
factory and tools, materials, training, sales, etc.)
and must have had a Creator.
• Marx overlooked the advantages of capitalism over
• It accepts uncritically the theory of evolution (contrary
socialism. For example, by encouraging competition,
capitalism actually promotes cooperation. It encourages
• It fails to explain how a material universe could be working
people to band together in ways that use their personal
toward a good purpose for humanity.
strengths. By allowing millions of people to make day-to-
day economic decisions, it taps the knowledge of more than
just a handful of central planners who try to manage an
economy. It also channels selfish tendencies toward service,
• It overstates the role played by economics in society while
and rewards those who serve others best.
nearly ignoring the role played by ideas.
• If thought and ideas are the result of the economic system,
Socialism and Communism
how could the ideas of Marx and Engels have arisen in the
midst of a capitalist system? And how could they change
• In a society where each is to receive in accordance with
his/her need, who is to determine each person’s need? How
do we know people won’t be just as selfish under
communism as they are under capitalism?
• Instead of the state “withering away,” why is it that in
Marxist societies the state has continued to expand?
Marxism and Christianity Contrasted
Atheistic—there is no God. Matter is the fundamental real-
Theistic—there is one Creator God. Reality consists of
both matter and spirit.
Humanity has evolved from animals. Humanity's nature is
Humanity was created by God. Humanity is unique from
determined by economic forces.
the rest of creation because people are made in the image
There are no transcendent, moral absolutes. Whatever
Moral absolutes are based on God's holy character and
advances communism is right.
Humanity is alienated from the fruit of our labors because
Humanity has rebelled against God, and we reap the results
of the distinction between the laborer and the owner.
of that sin through personal and social strife.
Humanity can be "saved" from alienation by eliminating
Humanity can be saved by trusting Christ. We can each
private property and class distinctions. We can each
become a "new person" through the regenerating work of
become a "new person" through economic, political, and
the Holy Spirit (2 Cor. 5:17).
Foundation for Hope
Humanity's hope is to be found in political revolution.
Humanity's hope is to be found in the sacrificial death of
Jesus Christ, who conquered death for us. Our hope will be
fully realized when Jesus returns to rule over all the earth
• Rather than becoming a “classless society,” Marxist
societies have created a new “elite” class of rulers and
managers who constantly are fighting for power.
• If there is no transcendent standard for morality, how can we
• Socialism collects too much power in the hands of a few
say people “ought” to promote communism?
with no “checks and balances.”
• The idea that “the end justifies the means” has led to
• Socialist societies have failed economically, except where
horrendous abuses of power and to the total disregard for
they have reverted to a degree of free market practices.
individual human rights.
• If the bourgeois will not give up power without a fight, how
do we know the dictatorship of the proletariat will not also
Critique of Religion
resist its relinquishing of power?
• The change in the economic system has failed to produce the
• Marx’s atheism ignores the evidence for God’s existence.
“new man” who is devoid of selfish tendencies and lives
• The idea that religion developed from polytheism to
only for humanity. If the Russian revolution had brought
monotheism is faulty. Even the most “primitive” cultures
about a change in human nature, why did Stalin have to
have a belief in a supreme God.
purge the most dedicated communists in his Politburo in the
• Marxists are hard-pressed to explain why religion has
heed them. But a few things should be kept in mind. First, the
persisted and even continued to grow in socialist societies, if
sharing was voluntary, not compulsory. Property was always
religion is simply a reflection of the economic system.
deemed to be private until the owner chose to contribute it (cf.
• Marx’s rejection of religion is based on its abuse, not on its
Acts 5:4). Second, while believers are encouraged to share
with those in need, they are never told to share with those
• Marx’s rejection of Christianity ignores the historical
who are able but unwilling to work for their own livelihood
evidence for its truthfulness.
(cf. 2 Thes. 3:10-12). It has also been emphasized that the
testing of personal stewardship requires the possession of
Marxism’s Most Basic Flow
personal property. The aim of Marxism is to abolish personal
The fundamental flaw of Marxism is that it is built on a faulty
view of human nature. Marxism teaches that aside from a few
Principles of Ministry to Marxism
biological drives, there is no unchanging human nature.
Human nature is determined by the prevailing economic
• Be prepared to acknowledge the abuses of many capitalists.
system. Therefore, if the economic system is changed, human
People are greedy and selfish, and are not above using or
nature will change.
abusing other people (cf. James 5:1-6).
• Be prepared to acknowledge the abuses of religion. People
This doctrine is not only denied by Scripture, but it is also
have abused religion to keep others “in their place” (cf., the
contradicted by the facts of history. Socialist societies have
endorsement of slavery and of racism by many Christians
failed to produce any such change in human nature. This was
or former generations). But this does not mean the Bible
acknowledged by Alexander Tsipko (consultant to the
supports such ideas.
Communist Party Central Committee in the Soviet Union in
• Be prepared to acknowledge the positive qualities of some
1988-89) in a 1989 article, in which he declared: “All our
Marxists. Some are motivated by compassion for the
absurdities stem from our dogged refusal to see man as he
really is…” (Hill, Turbulent Times, 63) Even Lenin decried to
• Encourage, however, an objective evaluation of Marxism.
lack of change in socialist people in 1919, when he said: “The
Marx stressed the testing of ideas by practice. Do the facts
workers are building he new society without having turned
support the theory? Has human nature changed due to a
themselves into new men who would be free from the dirt of
change in the economic system?
the old world. They are still in it up to their knees”
• Encourage the examination of the evidence for the
existence of God, the historicity of Christ, and the
reliability of the Bible.
Since the fall of the communist regime, the people of Russia
• Marxists usually think Christianity is “unscientific.” Point
have begun to see the effects of the lack of a religious
out that there is no conflict between objective science and
foundation in their culture. In 1992, Gorbachev said, “Ignoring
biblical faith. If they are troubled by the conflict between
religious experience has meant great losses for society”
creation and evolution, expose them to good material
(Yancey, Christianity Today, 19). Having removed any basis
regarding this subject.
for morality by denying the existence of God, communism has
• Point to the practical effects of Christian faith in the lives of
left the people without any reason for pursuing an unselfish
Christians, and to the changes Christians have effected in
ethic. For example, a poll conducted by Pravda in the early
society. Christians have been responsible for the
1990s revealed that people in Russia would sooner spend
advancement of women, for the abolition of slavery, for the
money on liquor than support needy children. The poll
building of hospitals and orphanages, for the feeding of the
revealed that “70 percent of Russian parents would not allow
hungry, for the training of workers, and for many social
their children to have contact with a disabled child; 80 percent
would not give money to help; some advocated infanticide”
• Love them. Pray for them. Encourage them to study God’s
(Yancey, 75). Marx’s theory has been disproved by history.
Word with you.
Is There a Biblical Socialism/Communism?
Bibliography and Resources
Many have suggested that there is support for socialism in the
Adeney, David. China: The Church’s Long March. Ventura,
Bible. Appeal is often made to the passages in Acts 2:44-45;
Calif.: Regal Books, 1985.
4:32-35, which describe the early church as holding their
possessions in common, and in 2 Corinthians 8:13-14, which
Bales, James D. Communism: Its Faith and Fallacies. Grand
encourage “equality” among Christians. These passages do
Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1962.
encourage a spirit of sharing among Christians, and we should
Billingsley, Lloyd. The Generation that Knew Not Josef—A
Sowell, Thomas. Marxism: Philosophy and Economics. New
Critique of Marxism and the Religious Left. Portland, Ore.:
York: Wm. Morrow and Co., 1987.
Stevenson, Leslie. Seven Theories of Human Nature. (New
Bockmuehl, Klaus. The Challenge of Marxism. Colorado
York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987).
Springs, Colo.: Helmers and Howard, 1986.
Yancey, Philip. “Praying with the KGB.” Christianity Today.
Bourdeaux, Michael. The Gospel’s Triumph over Communism.
Carol Stream, Ill.: Christianity Today, Inc., January 13, 1992.
Minneapolis, Minn.: Bethany House, 1992.
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For International Students: www.internationalstudents.org
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Written by Rick Rood, former Director of Publications for Probe
Ministries. Copyright © 1995, 2004 International Students, Inc.