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Motherboard Components

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A look at the brains of the computer, the motherboard, and its associated components. The Motherboard Overview 1. Inside a PC 2. The Motherboard 3. RAM 4. ROM 5. CMOS…
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  • Added: May, 12th 2011
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  • Tags: hardware
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  • Name: khulood

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Content Preview
    • A look at the brains of the computer, the motherboard, and its associated components.
    The Motherboard
  1. Overview
    • 1. Inside a PC
    • 2. The Motherboard
    • 3. RAM
    • 4. ROM
    • 5. CMOS Memory
    • 6. The CPU
    • 7. Expansion Slots
    • 8. Booting the Computer
    000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother types of memory the 'brains' the processor
  2. 1. Inside a PC 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother Power supply CD-ROM drive Floppy disk drive Hard disk drive Wires and ribbon cables Sound/network cards Mother board
    • The most important part of a PC is the motherboard . It holds:
      • the processor chip
      • memory chips
      • chips that handle input/output (I/O)
      • the expansion slots for connecting peripherals
    • Some chips are soldered onto the motherboard(permanent), and some are removable (so they can be upgraded).
    2. The Motherboard 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • A chip (microchip) is an integrated circuit - a thin slice of silicon crystal packed with microscopic circuit elements
      • e.g. wires, transistors, capacitors, resistors
    A Chip 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
  3. Motherboard Picture 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother Random Access Memory (RAM) chips. Expansion slots Read-only Memory (ROM) chips Processor chip (the CPU)
    • A data bus (a data path): connects the parts of the motherboard.
    Moving Data 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother RAM via expansion cards
    • Random Access Memory (RAM).
    • RAM is used to hold programs while they are being executed, and data while it is being processed.
    • RAM is volatile , meaning that information written to RAM will disappear when the computer is turned off.
    3. RAM 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother continued
    • RAM contents can be accessed in any (i.e. random ) order.
    • By contrast, a sequential memory device , such as magnetic tape, forces the computer to access data in a fixed order because of the mechanical movement of the tape.
    000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
  4. RAM Storage 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother Each RAM location has an address and holds one byte of data (eight bits).
    • Computers typically have between 64 and 512 Mb (mega bytes ) of RAM.
    • RAM access speeds can be as fast as 8 nanoseconds (8 billionth of a second).
    • The right amount of RAM depends on the software you are using.
    • You can install extra RAM.
    How much RAM is Enough? 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • Virtual memory uses part of the hard disk to simulate more memory (RAM) than actually exists.
    • It allows a computer to run more programs at the same time.
    • Virtual memory is slower than RAM.
    Virtual Memory 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • Read-Only Memory can be read but not changed .
    • It is non-volatile storage: it remembers its contents even when the power is turned off.
    • ROM chips are used to store the instructions a computer needs during start-up, called firmware .
    • Some kinds of ROM are PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, and CD-ROM.
    4. ROM 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • A computer needs a semi-permanent way of keeping some start-up data
      • e.g. the current time, the no. of hard disks
      • the data may need to be updated/changed
    • CMOS memory requires (very little) power to retain its contents.
      • supplied by a battery on the motherboard
    5. CMOS Memory 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother the battery
  5. 6. The CPU
    • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the chip on the motherboard that acts as the " computer's brain "
      • it does calculations, and coordinates the other motherboard components
      • CPU examples: the Pentium, the PowerPC chip
    • The CPU is also known as the processor or microprocessor .
    000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
  6. Some Processors (CPUs) 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother PowerPC Chip Chip Fan Pentium Chip
  7. The CPU and RAM 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother The CPU processes data. The RAM contains data and programs. The data bus transports the processed data to the RAM so it can be stored, displayed, or output.
  8. The CPU in Action 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother The CPU continued
    • The instruction pointer in the CPU's control unit stores the location of the next program instruction to be executed.
    • The instruction is loaded into the instruction register to be carried out.
      • registers are local memory on the CPU
    000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother continued
    • The ALU (arithmetic logic unit) executes the instruction.
    • The result is placed in the accumulator (another register), then stored back in RAM or used in other CPU operations.
    000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • The CPU executes a series of instructions by looping through an instruction cycle .
    The CPU Instruction Cycle 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother The speed of the instruction cycle is controlled by the CPU's clock.
    • The system clock sends out 'ticks' to control the timing of all the motherboard tasks
      • e.g. it controls the speed of the data bus and the instruction cycle
    • The time it takes to complete an instruction cycle is measured in megahertz (MHz).
      • 1 MHz = one million cycles per second
    The System Clock 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • Word size : the number of bytes the CPU can process at once.
      • depends on the number of registers in the CPU;
      • depends on the size of the data bus
    • Cache size : the cache is high-speed memory on the CPU that stores data which is needed often.
    Two Measures of CPU Size 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
  9. 7. Expansion Slots 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother The expansion bus transports data through the motherboard. Most expansion cards contain a port. A connector cable plugs into the port, and leads to a peripheral. Data originates in RAM Expansion slot containing an expansion card. continued
    • Common expansion cards:
      • graphics card (for connecting to a monitor)
      • network card (for transmitting data over a network)
      • sound card (for connecting to a microphone and speakers)
    • Most PCs offer 4-8 expansion slots.
    000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • There are several different types of expansion slot:
      • ISA : older technology, for modems and slow devices
      • PCI : for graphics, sound, video, modem or network cards
      • AGP : for graphics cards
    Expansion Slot Types 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
  10. Connector Cables 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother continued
  11. 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • Booting is the sequence of computer operations from power-up until the system is ready for use
      • this includes hardware testing, and loading the OS
    8. Booting a Computer 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother This is not an example of computer booting.
    • The computer checks the CMOS memory.
    • The computer loads configuration settings from Config.sys or the Windows Registry .
    Other Booting Tasks 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • If nothing happens, the system is not getting power.
    Common Problems #1 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother When you turn on a computer, you should see the power light and hear the fan. Fan Power light
    • If the ROM chips, RAM, or processor are broken, then the computer will stop or 'hang'
      • the light and fan will be on, but...
      • there will be no messages on the screen
    Common Problems #2 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • The Power-On Self-Test (POST) automatically checks for problems in the computer.
    • POST checks:
      • the graphics card, RAM, the keyboard
      • performs drives test
        • hard drive, CD drives, floppy drive
    • Problems are reported by various beeps, or by on-screen messages.
    Common Problems #3 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • Configuration data is missing or corrupted
      • in the CMOS or the Windows Registry
    • This will generate on-screen messages.
    Common Problems #4 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
    • If MS Windows cannot complete booting, it may start in Safe Mode.
    • Safe Mode is a limited version of Windows that allows you to use only the mouse, monitor, and keyboards
      • no peripherals
      • the screen icons will probably look very large
    Windows Safe Mode 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother
  12. Windows Safe Mode Picture 000-209 Intro to CS. 5/Mother

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