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I know, itâ€™s a lot.
Robespierre get chopped (1794)
Directory of 5 takes over â€“ more conservative
Ruled with an assembly
Womenâ€™s Rights after Revolution
Olympe de Gouges: Declaration of Rights of Women & Female Citizen (1791)
Sliced during Reign of Terror
Gain some rights: public schooling, land/family rights
Mary Wollstonecraft, English: fought for equal education rights
â€ś Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.â€ť
â€ś Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights. Social distinctions may only be based on common utilityâ€ť.
Age of Napoleon
Born in Corsica (off Italy) 1769
Rose through the ranks fast
1794: brigadier general
1795: saved National Convention from angry mob
1796: commander of French army in Italy
1797: defeat Austrians, national hero
1798-99: attacks British through Egypt..doesnâ€™t go well. Finds Rosetta Stone. Retreats.
Coup in 1799 brings a new Republic to France.
Three consulsâ€¦Napoleon one of them
Naps big influence
1802: named consul for life
1804: crowns self Emperorâ€¦
â€¦ back to monarchy in France.
Whatâ€™s it all about?
Why did the revolution happen in the first place?
Limit arbitrary government
How did it end?
Far more autocratic govâ€™t
As time progresses, Napâ€™s regime more dictatorial
Napoleonâ€™s Domestic Policy
Reestablishes Catholic church
Pope acknowledge Revolution
Not state religion, but religion of majority
Clergy paid by state (Protestants too)
Codified laws (before 300 different legal systems)
Just like who?
Equality of citizens (except? ? )
Choice of profession
Abolition of serfdom/feudalism
Family law: more patriarchal
Women less equal than men
Napâ€™s Military Strength
Hugely successful general, gained territory
Mistake: invades Russia 1812
(600,000 went in, only 40,000 came out)
1814: exiled to Elba
1815: comes back to France
1815: Loss to British (Duke of Wellington) at Waterloo
1815: Exile to Saint Helena
Europe after Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
European powers meet (1815)
Led by Austrian, Metternich
Purpose: restore order after fall of Napoleonic France and create balance of power
Monarchy restored: Louis XVIII
Territory gained by Nap, given back
Ushers in an era of [relative] peace in Europe for 100 years.
Right to have an independent political rule based on shared history and common future
What do people have in common?
Language, customs, traditions, values, religion
Types of Nationalism
Cultural: shared cultureâ€¦ not necessarily voluntary
Political: seek independence to protect community
Ethnic: shared ethnicity brings a group together regardless of political border
Religious: shared religionâ€¦(same as above)
Diaspora: ethnic/religious group based on shared identity. Separated from historical homeland, but share a common ethnicity or religion
Mexico: Fr. Hidalgo leads. Assassinated, 1811. â€śFather of Mexicoâ€ť
Haiti: only slave state. Rich French colony. Lâ€™Ouverture leads.
South America: fight Spain, gain independence. Simon Bolivar. Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia
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