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NATIONAL FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME

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India launched the National Family Welfare Programme in 1951 with the objective of "reducing the birth rate to the extent necessary to stabilize the population at a level consistent with the requirement of the National economy. The Family Welfare Programme in India is recognized as a priority area, and is being implemented as a 100% Centrally sponsored programme.
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NATIONAL FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME
INTRODUCTION
India launched the National Family Welfare Programme in 1951 with the objective of "reducing
the birth rate to the extent necessary to stabilize the population at a level consistent with the
requirement of the National economy. The Family Welfare Programme in India is recognized as
a priority area, and is being implemented as a 100% Centrally sponsored programme.

EVOLUTION OF FW PROGRAM
The approach under the programme during the First and Second Five Year Plans was mainly
"Clinical" under which facilities for provision of services were created. However, on the basis of
data brought out by the 1961 census, clinical approach adopted in the first two plans was
replaced by "Extension and Education Approach" which envisaged expansion of services
facilities along with spread of message of small family norm.
In the IV Plan (1969-74), high priority was accorded to the programme and it was proposed to
reduce birth rate from 35 per thousand to 32 per thousand by the end of plan. 16.5 million
couples, constituting about 16.5% of the couples in the reproductive age group, were protected
against conception by the end of IVth Plan.

The objective of the V plan (1974-79) was to bring down the birth rate to 30 per thousand by
the end of 1978-79 by increasing integration of family planning services with those of Health,
Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Nutrition, so that the programme became more readily
acceptable. The years 1975-76 and 1976-77 recorded a phenomenal increase in performance of
sterilisation. However, in view of rigidity in enforcement of targets by field functionaries and an
element of coercion in the implementation of the programme in 1976-77 in some areas, the
programme received a set-back during 1977-78. As a result, the Government made it clear that
there was no place for force or coercion or compulsion or for pressure of any sort under the
programme and the programme had to be implemented as an integral part of "Family Welfare"
relying solely on mass education and motivation. The name of the programme also was
changed to Family Welfare from Family Planning.
In the VI Plan (1980-85), certain long-term demographic goals of reaching net reproduction
rate of unity were envisaged.

The Family Welfare Programme during VII five year plan (1985-90) was continued on a purely
voluntary basis with emphasis on promoting spacing methods, securing maximum community
participation and promoting maternal and child health care. The Universal Immunization
Programme (UIP) was launched in 1985 to provide universal coverage of infants and pregnant
women with immunization against identified vaccine preventable diseases and extended to all
the districts in the country
The approach adopted during the Seventh Five Year Plan was continued during 1990-92. For
effective community participation, Mahila Swasthya Sanghs(MSS) at village level was
constituted in 1990-91. MSS consists of 15 persons, 10 representing the varied social segments
in the community and five functionaries involved in women's welfare activities at village level
such as the Adult Education Instructor, Anganwari Worker, Primary School Teacher, Mahila
Mukhya Sevika and the Dai. Auxiliary Nurse Midwife(ANM) is the Member-Convenor. From the
year 1992-93, the UIP has been strengthened and expanded into the Child Survival and Safe
Motherhood (CSSM) Project. It involves sustaining the high immunization coverage level under
UIP, and augmenting activities under Oral Rehydration Therapy, prophylaxis for control of
blindness in children and control of acute respiratory infections. Under the Safe Motherhood
component, training of traditional birth attendants, provision of aseptic delivery kits and
strengthening of first referral units to deal with high risk and obstetric emergencies were being
taken up.
To impart new dynamism to the Family Welfare Programme, several new initiatives were
introduced and ongoing schemes were revamped in the Eighth Plan (1992-97). Realizing that
Government efforts alone in propagating and motivating the people for adaptation of small
family norm would not be sufficient, greater stress has been laid on the involvement of NGOs to
supplement and complement the Government efforts.
Reduction in the population growth rate has been recognized as one of the priority objectives
during the Ninth & Tenth Plan period. The strategies are:
i) To assess the needs for reproductive and child health at PHC level and undertake area-
specific micro planning.
ii) To provide need-based, demand-driven, high quality, integrated reproductive and child
health care reducing the infant and maternal morbidity and mortality resulting in a reduction in
the desired level of fertility.


CONTRACEPTIVES

The National Family Welfare Programme provides the following contraceptive services
for spacing births:
a) Condoms
b) Oral Contraceptive Pill
c) Intra Uterine Devices (IUD)
Whereas condoms and oral contraceptive pills are being provided through free distribution
scheme and social marketing scheme, IUD is being provided only under free distribution
scheme. Under Social Marketing Programme, contraceptives, both condoms and oral pills are
sold at subsidized rates. In addition, contraceptives are commercially sold by manufacturing
companies under their brand names also. Govt. of India does not provide any subsidy for the
commercial sale.
COPPER-T
Cu-T is one of the important spacing methods offered under the Family Welfare Programme.
Cu-T is supplied free of cost to all the States/UTs by Govt. of India for insertion at the PHCs,
Sub-centres and Hospitals by trained Medical Practitioners/trained Health Workers.
The earlier version of Cu-T 200 ‘B’ (IUDs) has been replaced by Cu-T 380-A from 2002-03
onwards which provides protection for a longer period(about 10 years) as against Cu-T 200 ‘B’
which provided protection for about 3 years only.
EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILL (ECP) was introduced under Family Welfare
Programme during 2002-03. The emergency contraceptive is the method that can be used to
prevent unwanted pregnancy after an unprotected act of sexual intercourse (including sexual
assault, rape or sexual coercion) or in contraceptive failure. Emergency Contraceptive is to be
taken on prescription of Medical Practitioners.
TERMINAL METHODS
Under National Family Welfare Programme following Terminal/ Permanent Methods are being
provided to the eligible couples
.
A) TUBECTOMY

i) Mini Lap Tubectomy
ii) Lapro Tubectomy
Laparoscopic sterilization is a relatively quicker method of female sterilization.
B) VASECTOMY
i) Conventional Vasectomy
ii) No-Scalpel Vasectomy
It is one of the most effective contraceptive methods available for males. It is an improvement
on the conventional vasectomy with practically no side effects or complications. This new
method is now being offered to men who have completed their families. The No-Scalpel
Vasectomy project is being implemented in the country to help men adopt male sterilization
and thus promote male participation in the Family Welfare programme.


FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME IN THE PUNJAB STATE.
The Family Welfare Program was introduced in the Punjab State during the year 1956.
The main objective of the programme is to reduce growth rate so as to stabilize the population
at a level consistent with the needs and potential of national economy. Every year in the State
approximately 4.95 lac Children are born and deaths count nearly 1.73 lac which result in the
demographic increase of 3.22 lac persons. This rapid increase in the population is detrimental
to all our progress efforts and is impeding the over all socio economic development of the
State.
Earlier in order to reduce birth rate, targets were set for various family planning
method to achieve the desired goal without taking into consideration the felt need of the
people which leads to over reporting of service statistics and less quality care. During the year
1996-97 there was paradigm shift in the programme instead of calculating target at State/
District headquarters, Target free Approach (TFA) now “Community Need Assessment
Approach (CNAA) ” was introduced in which expected level of achievement (ELA) in respect of
various components of RCH at Sub-Centre and upwards are assessed on the basis of the felt
needs of the people in consultation with the community and opinion leaders so as to provide
choice and quality services.
Over the years of implementation the impact of the programme can be judged from the
following demographic indicators.




PUNJAB
INDIA
By
2010

Indicators
1981
1991
2001
2008
2008
(N.P.P)
1
Birth Rate (per 1000 Population)
30.3
27.7
21.2
17.3
22.8
21.0
2
Death Rate(per 1000 Population)
9.4
7.8
7.0
7.1
7.4

3
Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 81
58
52
41
53
<30
Population)
4
Expectation of Life at Birth 1981-85 1991-96 1999-03 2002-06
2002-06

(Years)

Male
58.5
66.6
67.6
68.4
62.2


Female
57.9
66.6
69.6
70.4
64.2

5
Total Fertility Rate (Average 4.0
3.1
2.4
2.0
2.7
2.1
Children would be born per
women)
6
Maternal Mortality Rate (per 1 lac -----
196
199
192
254
100
birth)
(1998)
7
Institutional Deliveries % age
24.8
37.5

63.3
47
80
(NFHS-I) (NFHS-II)
(DLHS-III)
8
Couple Protected by any modern 57
66.7

69.3
54.1

method.
(NFHS-I) (NFHS-II)
(DLHS-III)
As per District level Household Survey (DLHS-III) 2007-2008 nearly 69.3 % of the
eligible couples are currently protected by various methods of family welfare. Had there been
no family planning and if the effect of only terminal methods are considered the birth rate of
State would have been 31.3/1000 instead of 17.3 as per 2008 SRS estimates. All these vital
indicators are the outcome of family welfare services, which have been provided by the State,

entirely to the satisfaction of family welfare acceptors. The performance of Family Welfare
Programme for the last four years is as under:-


Method
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09


ELA
Ach
%
ELA
Ach
%
ELA
Ach
%
ELA
Ach
%
age
age
age
age
1 Sterilization 105503 107591 102
105786 93758
88.6
102224 103908 101.6 105262 97639
92.8

Vas.
15762


5615


13110


12760


Tub.
91829


88143


90798


84879

2 IUD
327753 341365 104.2 344499 335263 97.3
333716 313453 93.9
311670 297182 95.4
3 CC Users
392285 436602 111.3 427597 446725 104.5 443253 444289 100.2 406515 448304 110.3
4 OP users
111299 117151 105.3 126426 119313 94.4
124978 114774 91.8
119302 117206 98.2
It has been observed that more and more younger eligible couples are opting for Family
Welfare devices to save themselves against the risk of unwanted pregnancy. As per DLHS-III
69.3% eligible couples of the state are currently using any modern family planning methods
and there is only 8.5% of the eligible couples who have unmet need of contraception. There
are at present 38.50 lacs eligible couples in the State. Out of these 33.2% are effectively
protected with terminal methods, 6.2% use IUD, 19.4% use conventional contraceptive and
4.1% use oral pill cycles. In all 62.9% couples are effectively protected by all modern methods
of Family Planning.
To give impetus to the programme No-Scalpel Vasectomy was introduced in the state to
boost up male participation. The doctors have been trained for this technique and wide
publicity is given to educate the eligible male to accept this method. Since the inception of the
technique approximately 60,000 NSVs have been performed
Most of targets set for 2010 have already been achieved or are near to be achieved. The
birth rate of the state is 17.3 per 1000 population against the target of 21 while the birth rate
of India is 22.8 per 1000. The Infant Mortality Rate of the State is 41 against the target of less
then 30 to be achieved by 2010 while that of India is 53. The total fertility rate in the state is
2.0 against the target of 2.1 while in India it is 2.7 It is hoped, by vigorously pursuing the
strategies and action plans the state will be able to achieve much ahead the targets set for
2010.
Details of expenditure under Family Planning


Expenditure during (Rs.in Lacs)


2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10

(Upto
09/09)

Compensation
to
166.00
268.99
610.24
849.80
387.64
Sterilization
Acceptors

Sterlising Camps
10.41
7.50
9.78



NSV Camps
2.37
1.93
1.86



Health
Education
9.33
5.93
5.86


Camps

NSV Acceptors
120.41
17.69
14.51



NSV Training
1.43
-
-



NSV Publicity
1.24
-
-



IUD Insertion
13.43
53.01
4.25



Cash
Incentives
-
17.47
11.73


SC/BPL Women


342.62
372.52
658.23
849.80
387.64

At State H.Q.
4.25
13.92
-----
8.02
0.22

Total Expenditure
328.87
386.44
658.23
857.82
387.86




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