This section examines in detail the Philippine case study described in section 3 above. Meat as food is inexorably linked with culture, health and environment. Agriculture falls in between different ...
The Philippine Agricultural Industry
•Philippine agriculture plays a vital role in the economy •About 25% of gross domestic product
•Seventy percent of population is in the rural ...
NURSING EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES: NSG CURRICULUM NOW 5 YEARS<br />Nursing Education Update: Nursing Education the Philippines will never be the same again. Nursing, as a course in college, may no longer be as attractive as before starting this school year. In my post “New Philippine Nursing Curriculum and Opposing Views”, the Philippine Nursing Curriculum has dramatically changed since the Commission on Higher Education’s issuance of CHED Memorandum Order (MO) No. 5, series of 2008 otherwise known as “Policies and Standards for Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program”. This CHED Memo makes BSN a five-year course.<br />Here in Ilocos Norte, Nursing schools have started the implementation of CHED MO this school year (2008-2009). Many people (parents, students and teachers interviewed by this author) have protested either in silence or explicit ways the implementation of CHED MO No. 5 saying that this will only add to the burdens of parents and benefactors of Nursing students (usually relatives abroad).<br />From my initial findings, the new Nursing Curriculum in the Philippines will effect these changes:<br />Instead of the usual 79 units taken up by first year nursing students, the new guidelines will require students to take up 93 units in 2,632 hours.<br />Additional 357 hours for hospital training or Related Learning Experiences (RLEs) which will make RLEs 2,499 hours from the previous 2,142 hours<br />28 additional units or about three summers of schooling<br />For freshmen Nursing students, the “Theoretical Foundation in Nursing” is included in the first semester, and “Fundamentals of Nursing Practice” in the second.<br />From a parent’s standpoint, these changes have huge impacts on their family’s finances and other children’s education. Some parents I have interviewed said they might be forced to sacrifice the education of some of their children just to give way to their child taking up BS Nursing. There is now more pressure on the part of the Nursing student because family expectations have become higher.<br />From an educator’s standpoint, if CHED intended to “upgrade” or improve the existing Nursing Curriculum, they should have included in the new one some foreign language subjects (French, German, Norwegian or Spanish). This is because the ultimate goal of most Filipino Nurses is to go abroad and earn more money. Since this is the case, why shouldn’t CHED include in the New Nursing Curriculum subjects that will help our Nursing students communicate better with foreigners speaking languages other than English? This is perhaps an oversight on the part of our policy makers. If CHED wanted to equip our Nursing students with new tools, it should have been in the area of communication and NOT in the the area of Related Learning Experiences because Nursing students have enough RLEs. Well, that’s just my take.<br />Is the 5 year nsg curriculum in the phil a feasible proposal?<br />The proposed 5-year Nursing Curriculum in the Philippines by virtue of CHED MO No 5 has raised concerns from all sectors of the society particularly Nursing students and parents. The proposal of CHED to implement a 5-year Nursing Curriculum has been viewed as waste of money and time by concerned parties. Here in Ilocos Norte, as part of my freelance research work, the results of our series of consultations with parents, clinical instructors and some school administrators are the same – people are apathetic about the plan to implement a 5-year curriculum in BS Nursing starting SY 2009-2010. <br />For the better understanding of the 5-year Nursing Curriculum, I will be posting a little later the whole curriculum. For readers who are members of the academe, your comments will be highly valued since this will add to existing data this author already has.<br />However, partial results analyzed reveal that the 5-Year Nursing Curriculum is generally viewed by many as “insignificant and waste of resources”. This now brings us to ponder whether this proposal is really a feasible solution to improving Nursing education in the Philippines. As a researcher, I cannot readily give an answer. This is because I would like to be impartial on this matter and let the data do the talking. I will have my personal take on this later, of course.<br />Data gathered will be revealed after collation and further research on this subject. The method used in gathering data for this Nursing research was quanti-quali (quantitative-qualitative combo) since statistics and qualitative verbalization of opinions were obtained from select but qualified respondents. Is the 5-Year Nursing Curriculum a feasible plan? We’ll find out when the majority has spoken. <br />PHILOSOPHY OF THE COLLEGE OF NURSING<br />Professional Nursing Education is a dynamic, therapeutic, interpersonal process which inculcate holistic caring of people in various settings. As a vital component of the country’s health system, it is responsive to the needs of the society. As health educators, nurses possess an attitude of constant inquiry, research, leadership abilities, communication skills and spiritual ideals through Exemplary Education for Life (EXCEL). Within the context of health and development the College of Nursing continues to involve multisectoral groups in the promotion/ maintenance, restoration of health, prevention of illness, allevation of suffering and preservation of health at all cost. Utilizing the nursing process as framework for practice, nursing education endeavors to develop a globally competitive, competent, caring, confident and compassionate nurse who is conscientious of his/her ethico-moral and legal obligations.<br /> <br />HISTORY<br />In 1906, the Union Mission Hospital (now Iloilo Mission Hospital), Iloilo City, Philippines, set the stage for nursing as a profession in this country. Nursing education in the Philippines was pioneered by Dr. and Mrs. Andrew Hall, Presbyterian missionaries. Like other professions, nursing in the Philippines evolved from the apprenticeship system. This system laid the foundation upon which the Iloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing (then Central Philippine College College of Nursing and now Central Philippine University College of Nursing) was built and after which other schools of nursing were later patterned.<br /> The school grew under the able leadership of the following American and Filipino principals/deans:<br /> Miss Elizabeth Brinton, 1906-1916; Miss Teodora Sumbalon 1916; Miss Rose Nicolet, 1916-1923; Miss Hazel Mann, 1923-1931; Miss Flora G. Ernst, 1931-1932; Miss Dorothy Stevens; 1932-1934; Miss Flora G. Ernst, 1934-1942. The operations of the school stopped during the Japanese occupation, 1941-1945. When the war ended, Miss Loreto D. Tupaz initiated the reopening of the school. Dr. Henry S. Waters as director of Iloilo Mission Hospital was also the principal of the IMH School of Nursing in 1946-1947. He pressed for the offering, with Central Philippine College, a collegiate course leading to the BSN degree. The director of the Bureau of Private Schools and the members of the board of examiners for nurses authorized the opening of the BSN four-year course in 1947.<br /> Dr. Henry S. Waters served as acting dean of the new College of Nursing at Central Philippine College (1947-1948). When Dr. Waters returned to the United States, Dr. Teofilo Marte served as the executive secretary (1948-1949); and Miss Loreto D. Tupaz who finished the BSN degree at CPU, was the acting dean from 1949 to 1950 and served in this capacity until the arrival of Miss Esther Salzman, MSN, ABFMS missionary nurse, who held the deanship from 1950 to 1961. During her term, the college offered three curricular programs: the BSN four-year course, the GN-BSN Supplemental Course and the BSN five-year course.<br /> Miss Tupaz and Miss Salzman worked together to develop Central Philippine College of Nursing (later-the Central Philippine University College of Nursing) into a college of distinction, recognized both in the Philippines and abroad. Miss Salzman served as dean until 1961 when she retired in the United States. Miss Lily Plagata, MSN, was appointed to the deanship (1961-1974). When the latter resigned and went abroad, she was replaced by Miss Carmen Centeno, MS, during the remaining months of 1963. Miss Centeno, however, also left for the United States and Miss Loreto D. Tupaz, who finished her MA degree at CPU, resumed the deanship (1963-1970), assisted by Miss Maria Pablico, MSN (1969-1970). Miss Pablico also resigned to work in the U.S.A. From 1963-1973 Miss Tupaz continued to administer the three course programs of the college---the BSN five year course, the CCT (Clinical Teaching) course, and the BSN Supplemental Course. <br />On May 1, 1972, Mrs.Natividad C. Caipang, GN, BSN, MA, (CPU); CPH (UP), was appointed assistant dean in preparation for the retirement of Miss Tupaz in 1974. In 1973, Mrs. Caipang went on the Exchange Visitor’s Study Tour Program in the United States and Southeast Asia to visit nursing schools. This tour was jointly sponsored by the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society and CPU. Miss Tupaz was appointed as nursing consultant to Mrs. Caipang until her retirement in February 1974. <br /> Mrs. Caipang served as dean from 1973 to 1989. Under her administration, the college curricula underwent several changes in response to the trends in the nursing education at the national level. It was also during her term that the College was accredited with Level II deregulated status (MECS Order No. 36 s. 1984) and later with Level III (DECS Order No. 32s. 1987). <br /> After 16 years of deanship, Mrs. Caipang retired on May, 1989. During the search for a qualified educational leader for the college, an administrative committee chaired by Mrs. Wilma S. Punzalan with Mrs. Lydia F. Robles and Mrs. Genera S. Maglaya as members, was appointed to administer the College until May 1990. <br />On May 1, 1990, upon her return from the U.S.A. as a recipient of a doctoral enrichment program in nursing education at the George Mason University in Virginia, U.S.A., Dr. Betty T. Polido (BSN, MA Ed, MAN, Ed D) was appointed Dean, a position she held until May, 2000. During her nine-year stint as a dean she accomplished the following : Implementation of Associate in Health Science Education as a preparatory course in Nursing (AHSE); Level III Reaccreditation granted in 1994 and 1999 each for five years ; transcultural Nursing Program with Truman State University; inclusion of the College among the Outstanding Schools with Highest Performance in the Nurses’ Licensure Examination; the strengthening of the outreach program of the College of Nursing with the setting up of the KABALAKA Reproductive Health Center as training institution, implementer of various health programs and services and recipients of grants and funds from local and international support agencies; and upgrading of the New Level 2 Skills Laboratory.<br />On June 1, 2000, Mrs. Lily Lynn V. Somo (MAN) was appointed Officer-In Charge of the College of Nursing for school year 2000-2001 and is currently the Dean of the college.<br /> <br /> Philosophy and Purpose <br /> The philosophy, purpose and objectives of the educational programs of the CPU College of Nursing give direction to all aspects of the curriculum and operations. The statements of philosophy, purpose, and objectives, re-analyzed and revised on January 19, 1999 and accepted by the faculty members, are expressed as follows:<br /> <br /> Statement of Philosophy <br /> Professional nursing as a vital component of any country’s health systems is responsive to the needs of the society. It is a dynamic, therapeutic, and interpersonal process which incorporates holistic view for and caring about people in various settings and conditions. It is acompetency and community-based program using selected cognitive, affective, and psychomotor competencies in the nurturing process. Professional nurses are distinguished by an attitude of constant inquiry and by leadership ability in nursing practice. Within the context of health and development, the College of Nursing continues to involve the multisectoral groups in the promotion of health, prevention of illness, alleviation of suffering, restoration of health, and inculcation of the spiritual ideals.<br /> <br /> The faculty believes that:<br /> (a) professional nursing education should lead to professional competence, understanding of social realities, ethical behavior, and careful observance of the laws and regulations that guarantee the safety and comfort of the nurse’s clientele;<br /> (b) professional education should produce a nurse who is fully prepared for the staff nurse position in the hospitals in community health nursing, and in other health agencies;<br /> (c) professional nursing education should provide opportunities for students to work cooperatively with the health team in mobilizing and assisting the individuals, families, and communities to become self-reliant;<br /> (d) professional nursing education provides opportunities for the development of research attitude in nurses for continued improvement of professional competence.<br /> <br /> Statement of Purpose<br /> The purpose of the program which leads to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing is to prepare a graduate to function in a professional program which endeavors to develop a foundation for advanced studies to prepare nurses for positions of leadership in nursing.<br /> At the end of the senior year, the graduating student will have:<br />1. developed a sensitive awareness of the health problems/needs of society and concern for commitment to people who need skilled nursing care;<br />2. acquired the necessary knowledge, attitudes, and skills for the promotion of health, prevention of illness/alleviation of suffering, restoration of health of clients in the various settings and conditions;<br />3. developed research attitude needed for the improvement of the nursing profession;<br />4. acquired leadership abilities in the various nursing functions and responsibilities; inculcating Christian ideals as she delivers health care to clients in various settings.<br />Stop nursing’s decline<br />February 16, 2010 04:30:00<br />Philippine Daily Inquirer<br />The 39.73 passing percentage in the latest Nursing Licensure Examination is the lowest in history, while the total of 94,462 who took that exam is the highest number on record. As students, we are quite alarmed at and frustrated with the low passing percentage because it shows that the quality of nursing education in the Philippines continues to decline.<br />According to the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), there are now 463 nursing schools in the country. All together, they produce thousands of graduates every year. For years now, we have observed that we students are not getting enough training because of the lack of facilities and disproportionate patient-student ratio. Ideally, the ratio should be two students to every patient. But at present, it is 15 students to one patient. As a result, we are having difficulty in meeting the number of (patient or medical) cases we are required to attend to. Many students thus just have to exercise their “creativity and resourcefulness” in meeting this graduation requirement, without necessarily handling cases or performing the various nursing procedures.<br />Because of government laxity, nursing education in the Philippines has become for private colleges and universities a business whose primary objective is to make excessive profits. We, specifically our parents and guardians, have to bear the combined burdens of exorbitant fees, high-priced school services and hospital affiliation fees. Yet these do not necessarily guarantee quality education, which is impossible to obtain without adequate facilities, modern equipment and sufficient clinical exposure.<br />Whose task is it to ensure quality nursing education? The government’s, which has been exporting nurses to other countries? The Commission on Higher Education’s, which has tailored the nursing curriculum to job qualifications abroad?<br />Education, especially in health-related courses like nursing, should serve our own people’s needs. In reality, because the government’s only concern is to produce nurses for “export” to bring in more OFW remittances and because the profits of nursing schools are not regulated, this problem—poor nursing education—will continue.<br />In the end, we students suffer from the poor quality of nursing education. Health Students’ Action (HSA) believes therefore that we, students, should come together to demand what is due us. After all, we have all the right to demand quality education for which we are charged and are paying for. We are health service providers. We should not allow ourselves to be forever treated as commodities, to be manufactured and sold for export.<br />—KEVIN YVES DUANE ASUNCION,secretary general,Health Students’ Action (HSA), Syjuco Building, Remedios Street,Ermita, Manila<br />NURSING CURRICULUM IN THE PHILIPPINES<br />Two New Subjects Added in BSN Curriculum <br />Nursing students have to go through two more subjects before they get their much coveted college diploma. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) recently ordered the inclusion of two new nursing subjects in the nursing curriculum to guarantee that the Philippines will be able to produce high caliber nurses. <br /> <br /> The subjects added are the following: Theoretical Foundation in Nursing and Fundamentals of Nursing Practice which aims to instill to first year students the ethics and commitment of the nursing profession. <br /> <br />The CHED Order Number 5 series of 2008 requires implementation of the revised curriculum on the next school year 2008-2009. The CHED executive director, Dr. William Medrano emphasized that the addition of new subjects was not because of the canister scandal at the Vicente Sotto MemorialMedical Center in Cebu. It was recommended by Technical Committee on Nursing Education composed of distinguished personalities in the field of nursing according to CHED executive director. <br /> <br /> Medrano said, “The order was issued before that scandal. The move to add the two subjects came as a result of a recommendation made by the Technical Committee.” This development was favored by deans of nursing school and hospital administrators specifically the Association of Deans of the Colleges of Nursing of the Philippines and the Association of Private Hospitals in thePhilippines. However school owners and administrators view it negatively. <br /> <br /> <br />The Coordinating Council of Private Educational Associations (COCOPEA) and its affiliate private schools’ associations are demanding for the suspension of the new CHED order.<br />Schools ask CHED to defer memo for new nursing curriculum<br />MANILA, Philippines - School representatives on Thursday called on the Commission on Higher Education to scrap its memorandum order no. 5, the directive that imposes a new curriculum for nursing schools.In a press conference, the leaders of the largest consortium of private colleges and universities in the Philippines and the umbrella organization of five educational associations described the CHED order as "
and called on the government agency to defer the implementation of its order.The group also lashed out at CHED for its unilateral decision to add more subjects to the nursing curriculum.Fr. Rod Salazar, Jr. SVD, COCOPEA chair and president of the Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP) said that he already sent a letter to CHED chair Romulo Neri requesting for the immediate suspension of the new curriculum.Should CHED refuse to heed their plea, he said the association will explore all possible legal remedies to halt its implementation. He said they might even ask Pres. Arroyo to intervene on the matter. According to Salazar, the schools reject the implementation of CMO 5 due to several reasons: The first, he said, was that no public hearings were conducted by CHED. “This is in violation of CHED’s mandate that the recommendations of the agency’s panel of experts is subject to public hearing. Due process was not clearly observed,"
Salazar said.Second, he said that the decision will unduly burden nursing students as they will have to endure more than 28 additional units which would also mean an additional three summers of schooling.“In effect, what is being presented as a four-year course actually runs to five years,"
he said.The third reason, he said, was that the required learning experience (RLE) would be increased by 561 hours or 11 units from the present 2,142 hours.“Considering the great difficulties of finding suitable hospitals and places for the RLE, the increase logistical problem of schools, under the old nursing curriculum, there are already NOT ENOUGH hospitals for the required clinical hours,"
he said.“This seems untimely when the whole country is reeling from other equally pressing problems,"
Salazar said, referring to it as the fourth reason.Another reason for their opposition, Salazar said, was that the new curriculum adds nursing subjects on the first two years, replacing General education subjects.“This will break 2-year General Course and will force higher educational institutions to terminate contracts of their faculty. This is also not good for about 50 percent of the first year nursing students who usually decide to shift to another course on the third year,"
he claimed.The group dubbed the new set of guidelines for the nursing curriculum as "
Legally speaking, there is a defect in implementing the new proposed policies since it did not go through a genuine public hearing. We are appealing to CHED to suspend the implementation until we have considered an in depth and at length how we can truly improve the quantity and quality of the nurses we educate,'' said Salazar.Salazar said there is also a possibility that the nursing enrollees in private colleges will dwindle with the new CHED proposed policies. "
We have barely two months to go before the Academic Year will start and we, as heads of our respective institutions and educational associations, feel that the implications of the proposed changes in curriculum are too heavy for our educational system to implement this soon,'' said Salazar.For his part, Fr. Joel Tabora SJ, CEAP regional director and president of the Ateneo de Naga also expressed opposition to the plan."
It is a disastrous policy. It will make us choppy and will force students to drop out and to corrupt,''he said.<br />