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rules and definitions for correct use of English grammar
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Parts of Speech
2011




ARSH


Akram Saqib

[PARTS OF SPEECH]
The correct use of Noun, Pronoun, verb, Adverb, Adjective, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjections
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PARTS OF SPEECH

There are eight parts of speech.

1. NOUN

2. PRONOUN

3. VERB

4. ADJECTIVE

5. ADVERB

6. PREPOSITION

7. CONJUNCTION

8. INTERJECTION
1. NOUN

A noun names a person, place, thing or an idea e.g. Asim, Quetta, Pen, Grief etc.
HOW TO RECOGNISE NOUN:-

Following suffixes always express that a word is a noun, -acy, -age, -cy, -dom, -ee, -
ence, -ency, -or, -ery, -ess, -er, -ette, -hood, -ship, -ics.
EXAMPLES:- Freedom, nominee, painter, hostess, courtship, voyage, literacy, brotherhood,
actor, statistics, action, appearance, ettiquette, etc.
KINDS OF NOUN
l (a) COMMON NOUN

It names a thing, person or place which is common or ordinary; for example: pen, chair,
city etc.
(b) PROPER NOUN

It names a thing, place or person which is specific or particular. The first letter of proper
nouns is always capitalised. For example: Islamabad, The River Ravi, Changez Khan etc.
2(a) CONCRETE NOUNS

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Such nouns which are perceptible to our senses are called concrete nouns. For example,
Chair, Pen, River etc.
The concrete nouns occupy space or can be recognized by our senses as; star, sugar etc.
(b) ABSTRACT NOUNS

The nouns which are not perceptible to our senses, but name an idea, quality or a
characteristic, are called abstract nouns. e. g., Happiness, Grief, Beauty, Anger etc.
3(a) COUNTABLE NOUNS

The nouns which can be counted are called countable nouns. For example, Book, Pen,
Room, Horse, Bus etc.
(b) NON-COUNTABLE NOUNS

These nouns cannot be counted and are always descried in their individual capacity. For
example, coffee, iron, silver, gold, tea, water etc.

4.
COMPOUND NOUNS

The nouns made of more than one word are called compound nouns. e. g., House-keeper,
school-teacher, Father-in-Law, Maid-servant etc.
5.
COLLECTIVE NOUNS

These nouns name a group of things, persons or places. This group of places, persons or
things is considered as a single unit. For example, Audience, Committee, Class, Crew etc.

Singular Nouns: The name of only one thing, place or person e,g. man, lamp, chair etc.
Plural Nouns: The nouns which name more than one thing, place or person are plural nouns, for
example: lamps, men, chairs, etc.
HOW TO MAKE PLURAL OF NOUNS
Rule 1: Many Nouns are made plural by adding 's' at the end of the noun. For example: lamps,
chairs, etc.
Rule 2: Those nouns which end at 's , ch, sh, or z' are made plural by adding `es' For example
pass- passes; watch- watches; box- boxes; etc.

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Rule 3: If a noun ends at 'y' which is preceded by a consonant, 'y' is removed and 'ies' is added in
order to make it plural. For example fly - flies, spy-spies etc.
Rule 4: If 'y' is preceded by a vowel then only 's' is added. For example, boy-boys; storey-
storeys, toy-toys, etc.
Rule 5: Some nouns are made plural irregularly. For example: Mouse-mice; Woman-Women;
Deer-Deer; Goose-geese, etc.
Rule 6: The nouns ending in 'f' or 'fe' are made plural by replacing the 'f' or 'fe' with 'v' and
adding 'es'. e.g. knife - knives; wife - wives ; wolf - wolves, loaf- leaves. etc.
The following are exceptions. Scarf-Scrafs, Wharf-Wharfs, Hoof-hoofs, Proof- proofs, Safe -
safes, Chief-chiefs.
Rule 7: Some nouns are made plural with the change of vowel, for example: Man-men, foot- feet
etc.
Rule 8: These nouns are always singular.
Advice, Knowledge, Baggage, Luggage, Furniture, information, News, Rubbish, Statistics,
Music, Milk, Civics, Economics, Mathematics, Whereabouts, (singular verb follows these
nouns.
Rule 9: Titles with names are made plural by making plural their titles, for example Mr. X,
Messers X.
Rule 10: Figures, letters, words and symbols referred to as words (Nouns) form plural by placing
apostrophe and 's. For example 3 A's; four a' s; the 's, 8's etc.
Rule 11: a. Final 'o' preceded by a vowel changes into plural just adding 's' for example Studio-
studios, Radio-Radios. etc.
b. Final 'o' preceded by a consonant is made plural by adding 'es', for example echo-echoes,
potato - potatoes, etc. These are exceptions from This Rule.

Piano-pianos, solo-solos, zero-zeros.
Rule 12: Plurals of compound nouns are formed by making plural of the most important word,
for example: Personnel manager-Personnel managers, Editor- in- Chief, Editors-in-Chief, etc.
Rule 13: Some Nouns have same form for singular and plural. These are Deer, odds, Sheep,
Japanese, Chinese, Politics, Vermin, Corps, Solmon, Wheat. etc. (Representative word of their
kinds)

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Rule 14: These Nouns are always plural and plural verb is used for them. For example: Auspices,
tidings, scales, trousers, grounds, headquarters, proceeds, thanks, credentials, Innings, antics,
assets, wages, spectacles, etc.
Rule 15. Foreign noun are made plural by their own rules. Some examples,
Singular

Plural

Singular
Plural
Addendum

Addenda

Alumna
Alumnae
Formula

Formulae

Analysis
Analyses
Basis

Bases

Crisis
Crises
Criterion

Criteria

Datum
data
Index

indices



RULES FOR THE CORRECT USAGE OF NOUNS
a. Possessive Nouns
1.
Apostrophe and 's' is used with persons. For example, Khalid's book, Imran's bat,
Akram's pen etc.
2.
Instead of apostrophe 'of ' is used with the things. For example, Roof of the house, Door
of the room etc.
3.
Possessive Nouns which end in 's' either singular or plural do not need another s, only '
apostrophe is used, as boys' match, Keats' poem etc.
b.
Material Nouns
1.
No plurals of material nouns are used

A bag of wheats --- incorrect

A bag of wheat ---- correct
c.
Abstract Nouns
1.
Abstract nouns have no plural number e. g.

He did many mischiefs ---- incorrect

He did many acts of mischief ---- correct.

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d.
Collective Nouns

When these are used for a body of persons, the verbs and pronouns are singular. For
example; (Committee as a whole)
The committee was unanimous in this decision.
But when they mean individual persons, the verb and pronouns take plural form. For example,
(Committee as individual members).
The committee were divided over the issue.
e. Those Nouns which are singular in form and plural in sense have plural verbs as "people
have", "swine are" etc. e. g. People have their own opinion.

Swine are grazing in the field.
f.
Those nouns which are always singular should be followed by the singular verb as "This
news is true".
g.
Non-Countable Nouns

If we want to use 'a' or `an' with non-countable nouns we have to use such phrases as, 'a
piece of ', 'an act of'. e.g. I have an urgent piece of work. He made an act of mischief.


EXERCISE (Correct use of noun)
Incorrect





Correct







1. How many cup of coffees do you drink?
1. How many cups of coffee do you drink?
2. There are five watch in that shop.

2. There are five watches in that shop.

3. I bought five kilograms of potatoes.

3. I bought five kilograms of potato.

4. There are many peoples in the street.

4. There are many people in the street.

5. How many workmans were employed in
5. How many workmen were employed in
that factory?
that factory ?
6. I cannot differentiate between his 8s and 3s.
6. I cannot differentiate between his 8's and







3's.







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7. My favourite period in history is 80s.

7. My favourite period in history is 80's.

8. There are many gooses in the pond.

8. There are many geese in the pond.

9. Too many 'and' are boring to the readers.
9. Too many 'ands' are boring to the readers.
10. Brother-in-laws are not treated well in our
10. Brothers-in-law are not treated well in
society.
our society.
11. Armies-chief are a power in our political
11. Army-chiefs are a power in our political
system.





system.
12. Looker-ons always enjoy themselves.

12. Lookers-on always enjoy themselves.

13. Use two tables-spoon full of butter.

13. Use two table-spoons full of butter.
14. 8 cs are important in a business letter.
14. 8 c's are important in a business letter.
15. This is her brother's-in-law house.

15. This is her brother-in-law's house.
16. There is no telephone in Ali's and Anjum's
16. There is no telephone in Ali and Anjum's
house.





house.
17. In my opinion, the basis of his opinion
17. In my opinion, the bases of his opinion
are weak.





are weak.
18. What are the criterion to judge this statement.
18. What are the criteria to judge this
statement.
19. He has seen many happinesses.

19. He has seen many acts of happiness.
20. He gave me many advices.


20. He gave me many pieces of advice.
21. I have an urgent work at home.

21. I have an urgent piece of work at home.
22. The wage of sin is Hell.


22. The wages of sin is Hell.
23. We like to eat fruits.



23. We like to eat fruit.
24. I take pain over my work.


24. I take pains over my work.
25. He gave order to release him.


25. He gave orders to release him.
26. Measles has broken out in the city.

26. Measles have broken out in the city.
27. The room has no furnitures.


27. The room has no furniture.

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28. The cattle is grazing.



28. The cattle are grazing.
29. Ten miles are a long distance.


29. Ten miles is a long distance.
30. Buy now and pay later are a good policy.
30. Buy now and pay later is a good policy.
31. The news are not true.



31. The news is not true.
32. The table's legs are strong.


32. The legs of table are strong.
33. This is house of Khalid.


33. This is Khalid's house.
34. Economics are not interesting subject.
34. Economics is not interesting subject.
35. There are many sheep in the field.

35. There are many sheep in the field.
36. He has an urgent business.


36. He has an urgent piece of business.
37. Give me a scissors.



37. Give me a pair of scissors.
38. The jury were unanimous in its verdict.
38. The jury was unanimous in its verdict.
39. The jury was divided in its verdict.

39. The jury were divided in its verdict.

2. PRONOUN
The words used in place of nouns are called pronouns e.g. Mr. Bukhari is a good writer. (Noun)
He writes about common things. (Pronoun)
`He' is used here instead of Mr.Bukhari, so 'he' is a pronoun.
Pronoun can be used as subject or an object.
KINDS OF PRONOUN
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

These are used instead of possessive nouns. For example: instead of Aslam's book, his
book, can be used.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Such pronouns are used for the subject or object. There are three persons of personal
pronoun.
Subjective

Possessive

Objective

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case


case


case

Ist Person
I, we

my, our

me, us
2nd Person
you


your


you
3rdPerson
he, she, it, they
his, her, its, their
him, her, it, them
NOTE: 'It' is used for such things which are neither masculine nor feminine. We cannot
differentiate its gender.
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

This shows that the work has been done by the subject. Reflexive pronoun is formed by
adding 'self' or 'selves' to the personal pronoun. For example: Yourself, Himself, Itself etc. This
is always used as object of the sentence but reflects the subject. Subject and object in this case
are the same e.g. I did it myself. (These are used after the verb.)
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN
This pronoun is used to ask question. For example,
1. Who gave this letter to you?
2. What is this?
3. Which is your book?

The interrogative pronouns have generalising forms as follows: Whoever, Whichever;
What; also introduces exclamation. What a pretty doll is it!
RULES FOR CORRECT USE OF PRONOUNS
1. The apostrophe is the signal of ownership. But when it is used with a noun, the possessive
form of personal pronoun never takes an apostrophe. e.g. Every incoming item has its own place,
if it is misplaced the fault is yours. (Not your's)
2.
If a noun or a pronoun precedes a gerund, the noun or pronoun must be in the possessive
case. For example, Can you imagine Aslam's being late, (A gerund is a verb form ending in 'ing'
used as noun,)
For example: 1. Swimming is a good exercise. 2. Walking is good for health.
3. Any pronoun that is the subject of a verb is in the subjective case. e.g. I like apples. If
there are more than one subject, they too, are of subjective case as: Majid and he are fine
workers.

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