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Performance Investigation of Domestic Refrigerator Using Pure Hydrocarbons and Blends of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants

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A domestic refrigerator designed to work with R-134a was used as a test unit to asses the possibility of using hydrocarbons and their blends as refrigerants. Pure butane, isobutene and mixture of propane, butane and isobutene were used as refrigerants. The performance of the refrigerator using hydrocarbons as refrigerants was investigated and compared with the performance of refrigerator when R-134a was used as refrigerant. The effect of condenser temperature and evaporator temperature on COP, refrigerating effect, condenser duty, work of compression and heat rejection ratio were investigated. The energy consumption of the refrigerator during experiment with hydrocarbons and R-134a was measured. The results show that the compressor consumed 3% and 2% less energy than that of HFC-134a at 28? ambient temperature when iso-butane and butane was used as refrigerants respectively. The energy consumption and COP of hydrocarbons and their blends shows that hydrocarbon can be used as refrigerant in the domestic refrigerator. The COP and other result obtained in this experiment show a positive indication of using HC as refrigerants in domestic refrigerator.
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Content Preview
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 29 2007

Performance Investigation of Domestic
Refrigerator Using Pure Hydrocarbons and
Blends of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants
M. A. Sattar, R. Saidur, and H. H. Masjuki

vapor compression refrigeration system in the middle of the
AbstractA domestic refrigerator designed to work with R-134a
18th century and its commercial application at the end of the
was used as a test unit to asses the possibility of using hydrocarbons
18th century, the application of refrigeration has entered many
and their blends as refrigerants. Pure butane, isobutene and mixture
fields. The application includes the preservation of food and
of propane, butane and isobutene were used as refrigerants. The
medicine, air-conditioning for comfort and industrial
performance of the refrigerator using hydrocarbons as refrigerants
processing (Donald and Nagengast, 1994).
was investigated and compared with the performance of refrigerator
when R-134a was used as refrigerant. The effect of condenser
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochloro-
temperature and evaporator temperature on COP, refrigerating effect,
fluorocarbons (HCFCs) have many suitable properties, for
condenser duty, work of compression and heat rejection ratio were
example, nonflammability, low toxicity and material
investigated. The energy consumption of the refrigerator during
compatibility that have led to their common widespread use
experiment with hydrocarbons and R-134a was measured. The results
by both consumers and industries around the world, especially
show that the compressor consumed 3% and 2% less energy than that
as refrigerants in air conditioning and refrigerating systems.
of HFC-134a at 28°C ambient temperature when iso-butane and
Results from many researches show that this ozone layer is
butane was used as refrigerants respectively. The energy being depleted. The general consensus for the cause of this
consumption and COP of hydrocarbons and their blends shows that
hydrocarbon can be used as refrigerant in the domestic refrigerator.
event is that free chlorine radicals remove ozone from the
The COP and other result obtained in this experiment show a positive
atmosphere, and later, chlorine atoms continue to convert
indication of using HC as refrigerants in domestic refrigerator.
more ozone to oxygen. The presence of chlorine in the

stratosphere is the result of the migration of chlorine
KeywordsHydrocarbons, Butane, Iso-butane, Heat rejection
containing chemicals. The chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and
ratio, Energy consumption.
hydrochloro-fluorocarbons (HCFCs) are a large class of

chemicals that behave in this manner. (Radermacher and Kim,
1996, Akash and Said, 2003).
I. INTRODUCTION
Since the discovery of the depletion of the earth’s ozone
ATURAL ice was harvested, distributed and used in both
layer caused mainly by CFC and HCFC and as a result of the
N commercial and home applications in the mid-1800s to 1992 United Nations Environment Program meeting, the
phase out of CFC-11 and CFC-12, used mainly in
refrigerate food. The idea that cold could be produced by the
conventional refrigeration and air conditioning equipment,
forced evaporation of a volatile liquid under reduced pressure
was expected by 1996 (Lee and Su, 2002). The thermo
had been previously pursued by Willam Cullen in the physical properties of HFC-134a are very similar to those of
eighteenth century. These same volatile liquids could be CFC-12 and are also non-toxic environmentally safe
condensed from a vapor state by application of cooling and
refrigerant; the American Household Appliances
compression was also known by the 1800s. Combining these
Manufacturers have recommended HFC-134a as a potential
two ideas led to the development of what would ultimately
replacement for CFC-12 in domestic refrigerators. However,
become the dominant means of cooling, the vapor while the ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) of HFC-134a
compression refrigerating system. Since the invention of the
relative to CFC-11 are very low (<5.10-4), the global warming
potentials (GWPs) are extremely high (GWP 1300) and also

expensive. For this reason, the production and use of HFC-
Manuscript received June 25, 2007. The authors gratefully acknowledge
134a will be terminated in the near future (Tashtoush et al.,
the financial support by the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation
(MOSTI), Malaysia to carry out this research project. The project was funded
2002, Sekhar et al., 2005, Somchai and Nares, 2005).
under the project IRPA No: 03-02-03-1011.
Scientist and researcher are searching the environment
M.A.Sattar, is with the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
benign refrigerant for the domestic refrigerator and freezer.
(corresponding author phone: 0060-162-481723; fax: +60379675317; e-mail:
Hydrocarbon especially propane, butane and isobutene are
sattar106@ yahoo.com).
R. Saidur is with the Departent of Mechanical Engineering, University of
proposed as an environment benign refrigerant. Hydrocarbons
Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia (e-mail: saidur@um.edu.my).
are free from ozone depletion potential and have negligible
H.H. Masjuki is with the Departent of Mechanical Engineering, University
global warming potential. Lee and Su (2002) conducted an
of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia (e-mail: masjuki@um.edu.my).

223

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 29 2007

experiment study on the use of isobutene as refrigerant in
evaporator are shown in Fig. 1.
domestic refrigerator. The performance was comparable with

those of CFC-12 and HCFC-22 was used as refrigerant. Akash
and Said (2003) studied the performance of LPG from local
Evaporator
T
market (30%propane, 55% n-butane and 15% isobutene by
mass) as an alternative refrigerant for CFC-12 in domestic
T P
Data Logger
refrigerator with masses of 50g, 80g and 100g. The result
showed that a mass charge of 80g gave the best performance.
Condenser
T
Devotta et al., (2001) selected HFC-134a, HC-290, R-407C,
R-410A, and three blends of HFC-32, HFC-134a and HFC-
125 and found that HFC-134a offers the highest COP, but its
T
P
capacity is the lowest and requires much larger compressors.
Computer
Expansion valve
Service Port
The characteristics of HC-290 are very close to those of
HCFC-22, and compressors require very little modification.
Data acquisition system
T
P
Service Port
Therefore, HC-290 is a potential candidate provided the risk
T P
T-Temperature sensor
concerns are mitigated as had been accomplished for
Compressor
P-Pressure sensor
refrigerators. Sekhar et al., (2004) investigated an experiment
to retrofit a CFC12 system to eco-friendly system using of

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the test unit and apparatus
HCFC134a/HC290/HC600a without changing the mineral oil

and found that the new mixture could reduce the energy
Thermocouples/Temperature sensors were interfaced with a
consumption by 4 to 11% and improve the actual COP by 3 to
HP data logger via a PC through the GPIB cable for data
8% from that of CFC12. Sekhar et al., (2005) also storage. Temperature measurement is necessary to find out the
investigated refrigerant mixture of HCFC134a/HC in two low
enthalpy in and out of each component of the system to
temperature system (domestic refrigerator and deep freezer)
investigate the performance. The inlet and outlet pressure of
and two medium temperature system (vending machine and
refrigerant for each of the component is also necessary to find
walk in cooler) and found that the HCFC134a/HC mixture
out their enthalpy at corresponding state. The pressure
that contains 9% HC blend (by weight) has better performance
transducer was fitted at the inlet and outlet of the compressor
resulting in 10-30% and 5-15% less energy consumption (than
and expansion valve as shown in Fig. 1.The pressure
CFC) in medium and low temperature system respectively.
transducers were fitted with the T-joint and then brazed with
Hydrocarbons (HCs) are an environmentally sound the tube to measure the pressure at desired position. The range
alternative for CFCs and HFCs. HCs as a refrigerant have
of the pressure transducer is -1 to + 39 bars. The pressure
been known and used since the beginning of this century. The
transducers have also been interfaced with computer via data
development of the inert CFCs in the 1930s put the HC logger to store data. A service port was installed at the inlet of
technology in the background. CFCs have been applied since
expansion valve and compressor for charging and recovering
then in numerous refrigeration equipments (United Nations
the refrigerant. The location of the service port is shown in
Environment Programme, 1991). There is currently little Fig. 1. The evacuation has also been carried out through this
information on the application of hydrocarbon as refrigerant in
service port. A power meter was connected with compressor
the refrigerator without modification of the components. In
to measure the power and energy consumption.
this experiment a domestic refrigerator designed to work with
HFC-134a were investigated without modification. The
B. System Evacuation
experiments were conducted with pure Butane, Iso-butane,
Moisture combines in varying degree with most of the
HFC-134a and the mixture of propane, butane and isobutene.
commonly used refrigerants and reacts with the lubricating oil
and with other materials in the system, producing highly
II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND TEST PROCEDURE
corrosive compound. The resulting chemical reaction often
This section provides a description of the facilities produces pitting and other damage on the valves seals, bearing
developed for conducting experimental work on a domestic
journal, cylinder wall and other polished surface of the
refrigerator. The technique of charging and evacuation of the
system. It may cause the deterioration of the lubricating oil
system is also discussed here. Experimental data collection
and the formation of sludge that can gum up valves, clog oil
was carried out at ECL (Energy Conservations Laboratory),
passages, score bearing surface and produce other effect that
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Malaya
reduce the life of the system. Moisture in the system may exist
(UM). The schematic diagram of the test unit and apparatus is
in solution or as free water. Free water can freeze into the ice
shown in the Fig. 1.
crystals inside the metering device and in the evaporator tubes
A. Experimental Methodology
of system that operate below the freezing point of the water.
The temperature of the refrigerant inlet/outlet of each This reaction is called freeze up. When freeze up occurs, the
component of the refrigerator was measured with copper-
formation of ice within the orifice of the metering device
constantan thermocouples (T type). The thermocouple sensors
temporarily stops the flow of the liquid refrigerant (Dossat
fitted at inlet and outlet of the compressor, condenser, and
and Horan, 2002).

224

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 29 2007

weight of the cylinder. The LCD displays the weight and also
Evaporator
T
acts as a control panel. One charging hose was connected with
T P
the outlet of the cylinder and inlet of the electronic valve and
another one was connected with the outlet of electronic valve
and inlet of the service port. Using this charging system
Condenser
T
refrigerants were charged into the system according to desired
amount.
D. Test Unit
T
P
The test unit was a Samsung refrigerator and designed to
Service Port
work with R-134a refrigerant. The refrigerator’s performance
T
P
with no load and closed door condition has been investigated.
Service Port
T P
The specification of the refrigerator is shown in Table I.
Compressor

Vacuum pump
TABLE I
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF REFRIGERATOR FREEZER TEST UNIT
T=Temperature sensor
SPECIFICATIONS

P=Pressure sensor

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the evacuation system
Freezer Capacity (liter)
80

To get rid of the detrimental effect of moisture Yellow
Fresh Food Compartment 220
jacket 4cfm vacuum pump was used to evacuate the system.
Capacity (liter)
This supervac system evacuates the system fast and better
Power Rating (W)
160
which is deep enough to get rid of contaminant that could
Current rating (A)
0.9
cause system failure. The evacuation system which is shown
in the Fig. 2 consists of a vacuum pump, a pressure gauge and
Voltage (V)
220
hoses. The hoses were connected with the service port to
Frequency (Hz)
50
remove the moisture from the system as shown in the Fig. 2.
No of door
2
When the pump is turned on the internal the pressure gauge
Refrigerant type
134a(CF3CH2F)
shows the pressure inside the refrigerator system.
Defrost system
Auto Defrost
C. System Charging
Yellow jacket digital electronic charging scale has been
E. Test Procedure
used to charge HCs, their blends and HFC-134a into the
system. This is an automatic digital charging system that can
The system was evacuated with the help of vacuum pump
charge the desired amount accurately and automatically. The
to remove the moisture and charged with the help of charging
mechanism of the charging is shown in the Fig. 3.
system. The pressure transducers and thermocouples fitted
with the system were connected with the data logger. The data
logger was interfaced with the computer and software has
Evaporator
T
been installed to operate the data logger from the computer
and to store the data. The data logger was set to scan the data
T P
from the temperature sensor and pressure sensor at an interval
of 15 minutes within 24 hours. A power meter was connected
Condenser
T
with the refrigerator and interfaced with the computer and
power meter software was installed. The power meter stores
the instantaneous power and cumulative energy consumption
T
P
Electronic
of the refrigerator at an interval of one minute within 24 hours
Expansion valve
Service Port
control valve
in the computer. The pressures and temperatures of the
refrigerants from the data logger were used to determine the
T
P
Service Port
T P
Cylinder
enthalpy of the refrigerant with the help of REFPROP7
Compressor
LCD display
software. All equipments and test unit was installed inside the
control module
Platform
environment control chamber where the temperature and
humidity was controlled. The dehumidifier has been used to
T= Temperature sensor
P=Pressure sensor
maintain desired level of humidity at the control chamber. The

unit can maintain humidity from 60% to 90% with an
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the charging system

accuracy of ±5%. The humidity has been maintained at 60%
RH for all experimental work. The temperature inside the
The charging system consists of a platform, an LCD, an
chamber was maintained at 25°C and 28°C. When the
electronic controlled valve and charging hose. The refrigerant
temperature and humidity inside the chamber was at steady
cylinder was placed on the platform which measures the state, the experiments were started. The experiment has been

225

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 29 2007

conducted on the domestic refrigerator at no load and closed
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
door conditions.
4
Ts=25ºC
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
3
The comparison of the performance parameter of the
P 2
CO
refrigerants and energy consumption by the refrigerator is
1
discussed in this section. The comparison of energy
consumption and performance is given below for each of the
0
refrigerants.
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
Evaporator temperature,ºC


A. Energy Consumption by the Compressor
Fig. 4 Effect of evaporator temperature on COP at 25°C ambient
temperature
The energy consumption by the compressor during 24

hours was measured and stored in computer. The test was
carried out at 25°C and 28°C ambient temperatures. The
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
refrigerator consumes more energy at 28°C ambient
3
temperature than at 25°C ambient temperature for all
Ts=28ºC
refrigerants as shown in the Table II. The energy consumption
2
by the refrigerator is presented in the Table II.
P
CO

1
TABLE II
ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY COMPRESSOR AT 25°C AND 28°C AMBIENT
0
TEMPERATURE
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
Room
Room
Evaporator temperature,ºC
temperature,
temperature,

Refrigerant
25°C
28°C
Fig. 5 Effect of evaporator temperature on COP at 28°C ambient
used
Energy
Energy
temperature

consumption,
consumption,
kWh/day
kWh/day
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
HFC134a 2.077
2.254
3
Isobutane 2.131
2.183
Ts=25ºC
Butane 2.197 2.199
2.5
M1 2.626 2.758
P
2
CO
M2 2.515 2.579
1.5

The compressor consumes 2% and 3% less energy when
1
Butane and Iso-butane was used than that of HFC-134a at
62
60
58
56
54
52
50
28°C as shown in the Table II. The compressor consumes
Condenser temperature,ºC

22% and 14% more energy than that of HFC-134a when
Fig. 6 Effect of condenser temperature on COP at 25°C ambient
mixture 1 and mixture 2 was used as refrigerant at 28°C.
temperature
B. Effect of Evaporator and Condenser Temperature on
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
Co-efficient of Performance
3
Ts=28ºC
The COP of the domestic refrigerator using R-134a as a
2.5
refrigerant was considered as benchmark and the COP of
P
butane, iso-butane and their blend were compared. The COP
2
CO
versus evaporator temperature is plotted at 25°C and 28°C
1.5
ambient temperatures in the same graph. The results displayed
in Figs. 4 and 5 show a progressive increase in COP as the
1
62
60
58
56
54
52
evaporating temperature increases. The COP of the domestic
Condenser temperature,ºC
refrigerator is plotted against condenser temperature of the

refrigerator and shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The result displayed
Fig. 7 Effect of condenser temperature on COP at 28°C ambient
in Figs. 6 and 7 shows that COP increases as the temperature
temperature
of the condenser decrease. The COP of the refrigerator when
C. Effect of Evaporator Temperature on Refrigerating
isobutene and butane was used is better than that of R-134a.
Effect and Compressor Work
This is because the enthalpy of the isobutene and butane is
The refrigerating effect is the main purposes of the
higher than that of the R-134a at same condition.
refrigeration system. The liquid refrigerant at low pressure

side enters the evaporator. As the liquid refrigerant passes
through the evaporator coil, it continually absorbs heat

226

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 29 2007

through the coil walls, from the medium being cooled. During
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
this, the refrigerant continues to boil and evaporate. Finally
180
the entire refrigerants have evaporated and only vapor
g
Ts=25ºC
160
/
k
J
refrigerant remains in the evaporator coil. The liquid
,
k 140
rk
refrigerant still colder than the medium being cooled,
120
r
wo
o
therefore the vapor refrigerants continue to absorb heat. The
s 100
s
r
e
refrigerating effect versus evaporator temperature is shown in
p
80
m
60
Figs. 8 and 9. The Figures show that the refrigerating effect
Co
40
increases as the temperature of the evaporator decreases. The
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
refrigerant effect when pure butane, isobutene and their blends
Evaporator temperature,ºC
were used is higher than that of R-134a because the enthalpy

Fig. 10 Effect of evaporator temperature on compressor work at 25°C
of the pure HCs and their blends are higher than that of
ambient temperature
HFC134a at same condition.


R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
180
g
Ts=28ºC
g
160
Ts=25ºC
/
k
/
k
J
400
J
,
k 140
t
,

k
120
f
ec
r
work
300
o
s 100
i
ng ef
res
p
80
200
60
Com
r
i
gerat
ef
40
R
100
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
Evaporator temperature,ºC
Evaporator temperature,ºC


Fig. 11 Effect of evaporator temperature on compressor work at 28°C
Fig. 8 Effect of evaporator temperature on refrigerating effect at
ambient temperature
25°C ambient temperature


D. Effect of Evaporator Temperature on Condenser Duty
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
for Different Refrigerants
400
g
The evaporator temperature versus condenser duty is shown in
/k
Ts=28ºC
J 350
Figs. 12 and 13. The Figures show that the condenser duty
ct, k 300
increases as the temperature of the evaporator decreases. As
ffe
e 250
g
work of compression increases the heat added to the hot
n
ti
r
a 200
e
refrigerant during compression increases so the condenser
i
g
fr 150
e
requires more heat to remove. It is found from the Figs. 12
R
100
and 13 that the condenser duty when butane, isobutene and
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
their blends were used is better then that of HFC-134a.
Evaporator temperature,ºC


Fig. 9 Effect of evaporator temperature on refrigerating effect at
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
28°C ambient temperature
400

g
Ts=25ºC
/
k 350
The evaporator temperature versus work of compression is
J
,
k
y
shown in Figs. 10 and 11. The Figures show that the work of
300
r
dut
e
compression increases as the temperature of the evaporator
250
decreases. This is due to the fact that when the temperature of
ndens
o 200
C
the evaporator decreases the suction temperature also
150
decreases. At low suction temperature, the vaporizing pressure
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
is low and therefore the density of suction vapor entering the
Evaporator temperature,ºC

compressor is low. Hence the mass of refrigerant circulated
Fig. 12 Effect of evaporator temperature on condenser duty at 25°C
through the compressor per unit time decreases with the
ambient temperature
decreases in suction temperature for a given piston
displacement. The decreases in the mass of refrigerant
circulated increases in work of compression. The work of
compression when HCs and their blends are used is higher
than that of R-134a as shown in Figs. 10 and 11.

227

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 29 2007

R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
• The co-efficient of performance for the HCs and
400
blends of HCs is comparable with the co-efficient of
Ts=28ºC
g
/
k 350
performance of HFC134a.
J
,
k
y

300

The energy consumption of the pure HCs and blends
ut
d
er
of HCs is about similar to the energy consumption of
s 250
refrigerator when HFC134a is used as refrigerant.
onden 200
C
The compressor consumes 2% and 3% less energy
150
when Butane and Iso-butane was used than that of
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
Evaporator temperature,ºC
HFC-134a at 28°C ambient temperature.

• HCs and mixture of HCs offer lowest inlet refrigerant
Fig. 13 Effect of evaporator temperature on condenser duty at 28°C
temperature of evaporator. So for the low
ambient temperature
temperature application HCs and blends of HCs is

better than HFC-134a.
E. Heat Rejection Ratio for Different Refrigerant
• The domestic refrigerator was charged with 140g of
The condenser must reject both the energy absorbed by the
HFC134a and 70g of HCs and blends of HCs. This is
evaporator and the heat of compression added by the
an indication of better performance of HCs as
compressor. A term often used to relate the rate of heat flow at
refrigerants.
the condenser to that of the evaporator is the heat-rejection
• The experiment was performed on the domestic
ratio. Heat rejection ratio at the condenser temperature is
refrigerator purchased from the market, the
shown in Figs. 14 and 15. The heat rejection in the condenser
components of the refrigerator was not changed or
depends on the refrigerating effect and the work done by the
modified. This indicates the possibility of using HCs
compressor. The hot vapor refrigerant consists of the heat
as an alternative of HFc-134a in the existing
absorbed by the evaporator and the heat of compression added
refrigerator system.
by the mechanical energy of the compressor motor. It is found
Chemical and thermodynamics properties of hydrocarbon
from Figs. 14 and 15 that the heat rejection ratio for butane,
meet the requirement of a good refrigerant. Some standards
iso-butane and their blends is better than that of HFC-134a.
allow the use HCs as refrigerant if small amount of refrigerant

is used. The final conclusion is that butane and isobutene can
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
be used in the existing refrigerator-freezer without
1.5
modification of the components.
Ts=25ºC
t
i
o 1.3
ra
n
REFERENCES
t
i
o
c 1.1
j
e
[1] B. Donald, B. Nagengast (1994). Heat and Cold mastering the great
t
re
a
e 0.9
indoors. ASHRAE, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle NE Atlanta, GA 30329.
H
ISBN1-883413-17-6.
0.7
[2] R. Radermacher, K. Kim, Domestic refrigerator: recent development,
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
International journal of refrigeration 19(1996) 61-69.
Condenser temperature,ºC

[3] B. A.Akash, S.A. Said, Assessment of LPG as a possible alternative to
Fig. 14 Effect of condenser temperature on heat rejection ratio at
R-12 in domestic refrigerators. Energy conversion and Management 44
25°C ambient temperature
(2003) 381-388.
[4] Y. S. Lee, C. C. Su, Experimental studies of isobutene (R600a) as

refrigerant in domestic refrigeration system. Applied Thermal
R-134a
Iso-butane
Butane
M1
M2
Engineering 22 (2002) 507-519.
1.5
[5] B. Tashtoush, M. Tahat, M. A. Shudeifat. Experiment study of new
Ts=28ºC
refrigerant mixtures to replace R12 in domestic refrigerator. Applied
1.4
t
io

r
a
Thermal Engineering 22 (2002) 495-506.
n 1.3
t
io
[6] S. J. Sekhar, D.M.Lal, HFC134a/HC600a/HC290 mixture a retrofit for
c
je
e 1.2
CFC12 system, International journal of refrigeration 28(2005) 735-743.
t
r
a
e
[7] Somchai Wongwises, Nares Chimres, Experimental study of
H 1.1
hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in a domestic refrigerator,
1
Energy conversion and management 46 (2005) 85-100.
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
[8] S. Devotta, A. V. Wagmare, N. N. Sawant, B.M. Domkundwar,
Condenser temperature,ºC

Alternatives to HFC-22 for air conditioners, Applied Thermal
Fig. 15 Effect of condenser temperature on heat rejection ratio at
Engineering 21(2001) 703-715.
28°C ambient temperature
[9] S.Joseph Sekhar,D.Mohan Lal,S.Renganarayanan, Improved energy
efficiency for CFC domestic refrigerators with ozone-friendly
HFC134a/HC refrigerant mixture, International Journal of thermal
IV. CONCLUSION
Science 43(2004) 307-314.
[10] United Nations Environment Programme. (1991) Study on the Potential
This project invested an ozone friendly, energy efficient,
for Hydrocarbon Replacements in Existing Domestic and Small
user friendly, safe and cost-effective alternative refrigerant for
Commercial Refrigeration Appliances. United Nations Publication ISBN
HFC134a in domestic refrigeration systems. After the
92-807-1765-0.
successful investigation on the performance of HCs and [11] Dossat RJ, Horan TJ (2002). Principle of refrigeration. Prentice Hall,
blends of HCs as refrigerants the following conclusions can be
New Jersey, USA. Fifth edition, ISBN 0-13-027270-1 pp1-454.
drawn based on the results obtained.

228

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