THE RESILIENT CITY: ACHIEVING SHELTER-IN-PLACE IN SAN FRANCISCO
2011 PEER Summer Internship Program
PEER Summer Intern: Amy Dhaliwal, UC San Diego
Intern Mentors: Sarah Karlinsky SPUR, Mary Comerio UC Berkeley, & Laura Samant
This research was conducted at the San Francisco Planning & Urban Research Association
Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes,
Shelter-in-Place is essential in a city as compact as San
*CAPSS HAZUZ Data: Data aggregated from the City
and tornadoes undoubtedly cause panic and fright within a
Francisco because temporary relief shelters will be difficult to
Action Plan for Seismic Safety (CAPSS) was given as a
community. Case studies of regions hit hard by natural
accommodate in the tight space. Hence, the goal of this
starting point. The data was reliable only at the citywide
disasters show that one major repercussion of a natural
research effort was to find out how many homes in each
scale because the CAPSS study was done at a citywide scale.
disaster is community loss.
neighborhood will allow occupants to shelter-in-place.
A major task was cleaning up the data set in order to make it
reliable at at a neighborhood scale.
Furthermore, since the city of San Francisco is situation in a
In order to do this, a mapping scheme at the neighborhood
climate prone to earthquakes, it is very important to work
level was created which shows the usability state or seismic
*ArcGIS, a mapping software, was used to create the seismic
towards making the city more resilient. Thus, the San
vulnerability of buildings in each neighborhood. San Francisco
vulnerability maps as well as the demographic maps.
Francisco Planning & Urban Research Association has
was divided up into fourteen neighborhoods (Bayview, Central
launched an initiative entitled: Shelter-in-Place.
Waterfront, Downtown, Excelsior, Ingleside, Marina, Merced,
*Demographic data was retrieved from the Census 2000
Mission, North Beach, Pacific Heights, Richmond, Sunset,
The Shelter-in-Place effort is aimed at making San
Twin Peaks, & Western Addition) in an effort to make the final
Francisco a more earthquake resilient city by seismically
map visually appealing and easily understandable.
*Meeting with City Experts: Two meetings were held with
retrofitting the housing stock so that after an earthquake,
city experts to help determine the structural makeup of the
residents can stay in their homes while repair takes place.
The map conveys information on how many buildings in each
various types of buildings that exist in each neighborhood.
neighborhood are capable of proving shelter-in-place which is
Figure 1 shows the worksheets the experts filled out to help
necessary information because it helps locate buildings which
determine the structural makeup in each neighborhood.
well perform well during an earthquake as well as those that
will perform poorly and are in need of seismic retrofitting.
*Microsoft Word: The software was used to create the
neighborhood worksheets as seen in Figure 1.
Figure 4: Bayview Neighborhood Document
*Microsoft Excel: The software was used to create graphs
Figure 1: Neighborhood Worksheet
displaying the various usability levels of the housing stock in
each neighborhood as seen in Figure 2 and the list of
demographic characteristics as seen in Figure 3.
Figure 3:Bayview Demographic Characteristic List
*Microsoft PowerPoint: This software was used to create the
neighborhood documents as seen in Figure 4.
Figure 2: Bayview Building Usability Graph
*This project set out to map the usability states of buildings
in the various neighborhoods in San Francisco which is
*Another goal of the project was to tie in demographic
information to the mapping scheme in order to understand
Figure 5: Percent of Not Usable Units By Structure Type in Each Neighborhood
Figure 6: San Francisco Percent of Usable & Not Usable By Neighborhood
Figure 7: San Francisco Liquefaction & Landslide Zones
the characteristics of the people that live in each
neighborhood which was also successfully completed.
*Figure 5 is the map which shows: Percent of Not Usable
Units By Structure Type In Each Neighborhood.
*Figure 6 is a map which shows: San Francisco Percent of
Usable & Not Usable By Neighborhood.
*Figure 7 is a map which shows: San Francisco Liquefaction
& Landslide Zones.
*Figures 8, 9, & 10 are examples of preliminary
demographic maps which were created but later the
Figure 8: Population Mao of San Francisco
Figure 9: map: Age Group 5 & Under in San Francisco
Figure 10: Map: Age Group 65 & Up in San Francisco
information conveyed through them was placed on the
neighborhood demographic documents (Figure 3).