1. Paper Title: Pronominal Shift, Code-Mixing and Code-Switching in Indonesian
2. Sub-fields: Discourse and Sociolinguistics
3. Name of author: Juliana Wijaya
4. Affiliation of author: University of California, Los Angeles
(Asian Languages and Cultures)
5. Email: email@example.com
Pronominal Shift, Code-Mixing and Code-Switching in Indonesian Reported Speech
This paper is dedicated to analyzing the code-mixing and code-switching that
occur when Indonesian speakers are reporting their past interaction in conversational
Indonesian. In this paper I will analyze the ways in which pronominal shift, code-mixing
and code-switching reveal the complex social relationships between: 1) the coparticipants
of the local interaction, 2) the characters of the stories, and 3) the coparticipants and the
characters of their stories. I will also discuss the ways in which the speakers of the local
interaction construct their multiple identities that are related to the larger discourse
notions of ethnicity and social class when code-switching in the reported speech
discourse. Data analysis on shifting in reported speech in this paper will start from the
shift in a smaller grammatical unit (i.e. pronominal forms), then it proceeds to the shift in
register (i.e. formal and informal discourse), and concludes with the shift in language.
The corpus for data analysis consists of 10 hours of video-taped naturally-
occurring conversations carried out by Indonesians who live the United States
(California, Michigan and Wisconsin) and in Indonesia (Sidoarjo and Banyuwangi, East
Java). The speakers have diverse linguistic and geographical backgrounds that influence
their spoken Indonesian. Their multi-party interactions took place at parties, dinnertime,
and family gatherings. The data were collected from the year 2000 to 2002. Qualitative
research methods involving discourse analysis, conversational analysis and ethnography
of communication are used to analyze the data.
The data show that multilingual speakers’ pronominal shift, code-mixing and
code-switching frame their reported speech, invoke involvement from their coparticipants
and index social relationships among coparticipants of the local interaction and between
the characters of their stories. The data reveal the process of establishing and cementing
social relations. They also show which social reality is yet to be discovered and the ways
coparticipants are engaged in their social realities in the real world. During the unfolding
course of actions in situated activities, coparticipants of the interactions take up multiple
social identities, showing social relationships between the speakers and their addressees
and between the characters of their stories (i.e. the quoted speakers) that have different
power relations, hold different positions in their worlds, have different ethnicities and
even speak different languages. Pronominal shift, code-mixing and code-switching being
deployed in the reported discourse and the rest of the interaction indicates that speakers
and their addressees are bearers of complex and multiple social identities.
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