Experimental Oncology 32, 54–60, 2010 (June)
Exp Oncol 2010
32, 2, 54–60
RISKS OF CARCINOGENESIS FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATION OF MOBILE TELEPHONY DEVICES
I. Yakymenko1, 2, *, E. Sidorik2
1Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Soborna square 8/1, Bila Tserkva 09117, Ukraine
2R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of NAS of Ukraine,
Vasylkivska str. 45, Kiev 03022, Ukraine
Intensive implementation of mobile telephony technology in everyday human life during last two decades has given a possibility for epide-
miological estimation of long-term effects of chronic exposure of human organism to low-intensive microwave (MW) radiation. Latest
epidemiological data reveal a significant increase in risk of development of some types of tumors in chronic (over 10 years) users of mobile
phone. It was detected a significant increase in incidence of brain tumors (glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma), parotid gland tumor,
seminoma in long-term users of mobile phone, especially in cases of ipsilateral use (case-control odds ratios from 1.3 up to 6.1). Two
epidemiological studies have indicated a significant increase of cancer incidence in people living close to the mobile telephony base station
as compared with the population from distant area. These data raise a question of adequacy of modern safety limits of electromagnetic
radiation (EMR) exposure for humans. For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects
of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive
(non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction,
heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive
non-ionizing radiation doesn’t permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical
steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile
telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain.
Key Words: tumor, radiofrequency radiation, microwaves, mobile phone, risk assessment, non-thermal effects.
Apparently, any technical device was not introduced
intensive implementation of mobile phone technology
in everyday human life so fast and so close as mobile
the biggest biophysical experiment in human history.
phone. Starting from first commercial mobile phone
In 1996 World Health Organization started the wide-
network in Japan in 1979 the number of active users
ranging epidemiological research on the risk of develop-
of mobile telephony increased to over 3 billion all over
ment of some cancer types in mobile phone users. The
the world. In developed countries the number of mo-
research was carried out in term of Interphone project
bile phone users today is close to saturation. The initial
and was substantially supported by industry. The project
age of youngest users of mobile phone is estimated
included national researches in 13 countries, and was
as 3 years old . The distinguishing feature of the
finished in 2005, but until now the final report was not
mobile telephony technology is immediate vicinity of
published . At the same time project data published in
some countries and data of the epidemiological studies
source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) — handset
of independent research groups have indicated statisti-
to the human brain. These specificities lead to public
cally significant increase in the risk of development of
concern about the safety of this technology for human
brain tumors in chronic users of mobile phone.
health. From scientific point of view the main problem of
It is clear that safety problem of mobile telephony
a mobile telephony technology can be formulated as the
technology must be a special concern of industry and
lack of research on biological effects of low-intensive
authorities. This problem must be also the special
EMR, especially long-term studies, on the moment
concern of profile experts and researchers. In this
of active implementation of technology. It suffice to
review the main attention is drawn to published data
say that safety limits for mobile telephony are based
on potential risk of cancer development, and the aim
only on thermal effects of EMR . At the same time
of the review is to discuss the recent publications on
a principally new data about non-thermal biological ef-
the topic and pay attention to the “harmful” effects
fects of non-ionizing EMR have been revealed during
of EMR. In most cases we used peer-reviewed journal
the last years. These data are not taken into account by
publications. For more comprehensive insight into the
mobile phones manufacturers and most authorities for
problem of biological effects of RF EMF we can recom-
today. That is why some scientists call the situation with
mend some other reviews (see, for example [3–9]).
Received: April 15, 2010.
MAIN PHYSICAL CONCEPTS OF MOBILE
Mobile telephony technology utilizes electromagnetic
Abbreviations used: AM — amplitude modulation; EMR — electro-
waves of radio frequency (RF) for connection between
magnetic radiation; HSP — heat shock proteins; MDA — malondial-
base station and mobile phone (handset). The frequencies
dehyde; NO — nitric oxide; OR — odds ratio; ROS — reactive oxygen
species; RF — radio frequency; SAR — specific absorption rate;
of electromagnetic waves (frequency of electromagnetic
SIR — standardized incidence ratio; SOD — superoxide dismutase.
field oscillations) used in most modern mobile phones are
Experimental Oncology 32, 54–60, 2010 (June)
850–1900 MHz. These waves actually belong to extreme
non-exposed soldiers . Greatest excess of cancer
part of radiofrequency which calls microwaves (MWs). The
cases were in blood-forming organs and lymphatic
useful (voice) information is carried by small modulation
tissues (ratio = 6.7). Examination of 40,000 US naval
of electromagnetic wave frequency. This range of electro-
personnel served during the Korean War (1950–1954)
magnetic waves is a non-ionizing radiation because it has
has indicated almost two times more cases of cancer
not enough energy for ionizing molecules.
in the high-exposed personnel compared with the low-
Thus, both base station and mobile phone irradiates
exposed one .
EMR. The levels of radiation are different from base station
In Honolulu (1978–1981) in broadcasting towers’
and handset, and for handset it depends significantly on
locations (100–150 feet from the towers) the standar-
the state of the system. The radiation power of base sta-
dized incidence ratio (SIR) for total cancer cases was
tion antenna is about 60 W, and the intensity of radiation
indicated 1.88 compared with 1.07 in the locations with-
depends on the geometry of irradiated beam. The pick
out towers . For leukemia SIR was 2.08 and 0.59 for
power of mobile phone handset radiation is up to 2 W.
the locations with and without broadcasting towers .
But the intensity of radiation (power density) near a user
Increased incidence in childhood leukemia was also
head is much more from handset than from base station
detected near the low-frequency radio tower (23.4 KHz)
due to the big difference in distance from the sources
in Hawaii (1979–1990) . The odds ratio (OR) for
of radiation. For example, the power density in the main
people lived within 2.6 miles of the radio towers before
beam of base station at the distance of 150–200 m from
diagnosis was 2.0 as compared with unexposed resi-
antenna is about tenths of a μW/cm2 . At the same
dences of Hawaii. South Korean study (1993–1999) of
time the power density in immediate vicinity to handset
leukemia and brain cancer patients under 15 years age
can be tens μW/cm2. The biggest level of irradiation mobile
has revealed the OR = 2.15 for all types of leukemia
phone produces during the connection process (calling),
among children resided within 2 km of the nearest am-
smaller (lower) — during the talk, and minimal (close to
plitude modulation (AM) radio transmitter as compared
zero) in a stand by position. Modern international safety
with those resided more than 20 km from it . Brain
limits for the level of power density of non-ionizing EMR
cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with
are set approximately up to 100 μW/cm2 .
AM radiofrequency radiation in this research.
The level of EMR energy absorbed by human body
Analysis of occupational studies which was done by
is estimated by index of specific absorption rate (SAR),
Savitz and Calle  revealed that the highest risk ratio
which indicates the EMR energy absorbed per mass unit
for any occupational group for acute myelogenous leu-
of tissue. The safety limit for this index is 1.6 W/kg for
kemia was in telegraph, radio and radar operators (2.6).
USA and 2 W/kg for most other countries. This index is
It’s significant that among the members of American
mandatory technical passport index for each model of
Physical Therapy Association (females), who used mic-
mobile phone for today. SAR is estimated and calculated
rowave or radiofrequency diathermy for treatment of
on the models of human head and body. It is important
patients, the percent of miscarriages occurring before
that real SAR value depends on the structure of tissue
the seventh week of gestation was 47.7% in comparison
and, for example, can be much more for child head than
with 14.5% in non-exposed control women .
for adult . Least-emitting models of mobile phone
THE USAGE OF MOBILE PHONES
give SAR just a few tenths of W/kg.
AND TUMOR RISK ASSOCIATION
During the last few years data about the associa-
tion of long-term usage of mobile phone with tumor
AND OCCUPATIONAL STUDIES)
risk have been published. The most researches were
One of the first publications about the possible link
focused on possible association of mobile phone us-
between anthropogenic non-ionizing EMR and cancer risk
age and brain tumors development, because brains
was published by Wertheimer and Leeper in 1979 . The
are mostly exposed to irradiation by mobile phone. In
authors have indicated the association of children cancer
series of epidemiological studies by Swedish oncolo-
with “excess of electrical wiring configuration” in Colorado,
gists (Dr. L. Hardell group) a significant increase of some
USA in 1976–1977. Children lived close to high-current
types of brain tumors risk in long-term (10 years or
configuration had twice more cases of leukemia and
more) users of mobile and cordless phones has been
1.6 times more cases of lymphoma as compared with the
detected [20–26]. As to the short-term users of mobile
control population. Later the same authors have found less
phone, similar effects were absent or less expressive
but still significant association between high-current en-
. It must be indicated that Sweden was one of the
vironment and cancer in adults . It was proposed that
first countries, where commercial mobile networks
low frequency magnetic fields from high-current wiring
were implemented. Analogue mobile phones were
could be the risk factor of cancer development.
used in Sweden since 1981 and digital system (GSM;
The military data indicate the influence of radiofre-
Global System for Mobile Communication) were intro-
quency and microwaves radiation on the development
duced in 1991 . The risk of meningioma increased
of cancer. So, among Polish soldiers of 20–29 years old
among Swedish users of mobile and cordless phones
exposed to microwave and radar during 1970–1979 the
with term of usage over 10 years. Case-control OR
cancer incidence rates were 5.5 times higher then in
for analogue mobile phones was 1.6, 95%, for digital
Experimental Oncology 32, 54–60, 2010 (June)
mobile phones 1.8, 95%, for cordless phone 1.8, 95%.
concerns. But the World Health Organization Interna-
For acoustic neuroma the risk of development increased
tional EMF Project had a priority to study effects of mo-
with increasing period of usage of mobile phone, and it
bile phone and discouraged the base stations effects
was the highest for users of analogue phone with term
studies (except 2003–2006, when WHO recommended
of usage over 15 years, OR = 3.5, 95% .
studies of base station possible effects) . That is why
In recent publication by L. Hardell et al.  the au-
only a few publications on the topic could be found, and
thors analyzed the majority of published case-control
two are about the association with cancer risk [34, 35].
studies on possible association of the usage of mobile
The comparison of cancer cases among population
phones with tumor risk for long-term users. For acous-
living up to 400 m near mobile phone base station and
tic neuroma the analysis of 9 case-control studies has
further then 400 m from base station was carried out
revealed the increasing risk for over 10 year users of
in Germany (1994–2004) . The increase of cancer
mobile phone (OR = 1.3, 95%) and further increase
cases among people from area close to base station
of risk in cases of ipsilateral exposure (OR = 1.6,
over the control population was 1.26 times during the
95%). Similar results were revealed for glioma. The
first five year period (1994–1998), and 2.11 times dur-
risk of glioma significantly increased for 10 year users
ing the second five year period (1999–2004). For the
(OR = 1.3, 95%) and especially for ipsilateral usageof
second period of analysis the increase of cancer cases
mobile phone (OR = 1.9, 95%). It was indicated the
among people living near base station was statistically
highest risk of malignant brain tumors OR = 2.7, 95%
significant both compared to the population from fur-
for users of mobile phone with first use less 20 years
ther area and to the expected background incidence.
age. It correlates with previous published data of
Even more expressive results were obtained in Israel,
L. Hardell group about highest OR = 5.9, 95% of brain
Netanya . People living in the area near (up to 350 m)
tumour in 20–29 years age ipsilateral users of ana-
to mobile phone base station (850 MHz, 1500 watt of full
logue mobile phone among different age groups .
power) during 1 year of station operation (n = 622) and
Parotid gland is another potential target for mobile
matched individuals from other area (n = 1222) partici-
phone handset radiation. Israel team study in term of
pated in this study. There were 4.15 times more cases of
Interphone research indicated an association between
cancer in base station close area than in the control area.
the mobile phone use and parotid gland tumor .
Relative cancer rate for females from close to base sta-
The study included 402 benign and 58 malignant
tion area was 10.5, relative rate was 0.6 for control area
cases of parotid gland tumor diagnosed in Israel at
as compared with the whole town of Netanya female
age over 18 years in 2001–2003. The OR in the highest
population (relative rate equals 1). Cancer incidence of
category of cumulative number of calls for ipsilateral
women in close to base station area was significantly
use was 1.58, 95%. It is important that previous study
higher (p < 0.0001) compared with the control area and
performed in Finland detected the OR = 5.0, 95% for
the whole city area. Authors emphasized the enormously
salivary gland cancers among Finland digital mobile
short latency period (only 1 year) for such dramatic in-
phone subscribers compared with control population
crease of cancer incidence in the area .
(used mobile phone just for 1–2 year) .
ANIMAL MODEL STUDY
As was shown by L. Hardell group, for non-
Just a few studies have been designed to estimate
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) of T cell, cutaneous and
an association of non-ionizing EMR exposure and
leukemia types, the ORs for analogue phone users
cancer development on animal models. In one study
were found to be 3.4, 95%; for digital phone users —
mice with high incidence of spontaneous breast can-
6.1, 95%; for cordless phone users — 5.5, 95%
cer and mice treated with 3,4-benzopyrene (BP) were
. American researchers found that for NHL the
irradiated by 2,450 MHz microwaves in an anechoic
OR for ≥ 8 years users of mobile phone was 1.6, 95%,
chamber at 5 or 15 mW/cm2 (2 h daily, 6 sessions per
and the risk was increasing with number of years .
week, 3 months) . Irradiation with MWs at either
Regarding the uveal melanoma, the analysis of
5 or 15 mW/cm2 resulted in acceleration of the develop-
118 cases of this pathology and 475 controls in Germany
ment of BP-induced skin cancer (285 days in control,
has indicated the OR = 4.2, 95% for people probably/
230 days for 5 mW/cm2 and 160 days for 15 mW/cm2).
certainly exposed to mobile phone . The OR = 1.8,
Microwaves-exposed mice with high incidence of spon-
95% was shown for seminoma for men keeping the mo-
taneous breast cancer had breast tumors earlier than
bile phone during stand by in one trousers pocket, and
control (332 days in control, 261 days for 5 mW/cm2 and
OR = 1.0, 95% — in different pockets . The results
219 days for 15 mW/cm2). Authors had indicated that
were based on 542 cases study of seminoma performed
the acceleration of cancer development and lowering
of natural antineoplastic resistence was similar in mice
MOBILE PHONE BASE STATIONS
exposed to MWs at 5 mW/cm2 or to chronic stress
AND TUMOR RISK
caused by confinement, but differed significantly from
Starting from early 1990s tens of thousands of mo-
the results obtained on animals exposed at 15 mW/cm2,
bile phone base stations have been mounted over the
where local thermal effects were possible.
world. So fast and extensive implementation of new
The most cited study was performed by Repacholi,
technology base stations naturally had induced public
et al.  on transgenic mice moderately predisposed
Experimental Oncology 32, 54–60, 2010 (June)
to develop lymphoma spontaneously. One group
Some studies suggest the possibility of DNA dam-
of mice (101 females) was exposed during two 30-min
age under the RF EMR exposure. So, it was reported
periods per day for up to 18 months in plane-wave
the increase in DNA double-strand breaks and mi-
electromagnetic fields of 900 MHz with pulse repeti-
cronucleation in lymphocytes obtained from mobile
tion frequency of 217 Hz and a pulse width of 0.6 ms,
phone users . The number of single and double-
incident power densities were 2.6–13 W/m2 and average
strand breaks of DNA in brain cells of rat exposed to
SAR 0.13–1.4 W/kg. Another group of mice (100 fe-
2.450 MHz RF radiation (SAR = 0.6–1.2 W/kg of whole
males) was an unexposed control. Lymphoma risk was
body) for 2 h was shown to be increased . The same
significantly higher in the exposed mice than in the
the exposure of mice to 2,450 MHz radiation (power
control (OR = 2.4, 95%). And follicular lymphoma was
density 1 mW/cm2, 2 h per day over 120–200 days) has
the major contributor to the increased tumor incidence.
led to breakage of DNA in testis and brain . The
exposure of human fibroblasts or rat granulose cells
POSSIBLE PATHWAYS OF BIOLOGICAL
to mobile phone radiation (1800 MHz, SAR = 1.2 or
ACTIVITY OF LOW-INTENSIVE EMR
2 W/kg, 4, 16 or 24 h) has induced single- and double-
One of the strong evidences that living cells perceive
strand breaks of DNA after 16 h of exposure .
low-intensive EMR as a stress factor is a heat shock
Molt-4 human lymphoblastoid cells exposed to TDMA
proteins (HSP) overexpression under the exposure.
(Time Division Multiple Access) and iDEN (Integrated
So, effective experiment with low-intensive microwaves
Digital Enhanced Network) mobile phone radiation
irradiation of transgenic nematode Caenorhabditis
(2.4–26 μW/g, 2–21 h) had opposite effect on DNA
elegans carrying reporter-gene constructs regulated by
breakage depending on the type of signal, intensity
homologous HSP16 heat-shock promoters has revealed
and duration of the exposure .
non-thermal-induced overexpression of HSPs .
A few studies were devoted to the RF EMR expo-
Nematodes were exposed overnight to continuous-wave
sure effects on apoptosis. So, yeast cells of wild-type
radiation (750 MHz, calculated SAR = 0.001 W/kg). Ex-
and cdc-48-mutant were exposed to 900 or 872 MHz
pression of HSP16 reporter rose steeply through 24.5 to
radiation (SAR = 0.4 or 3.0 W/kg) with or without ex-
25.5 °C (p < 0.001) in exposed nematodes. Meantime in
posure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) . It was found
non-exposed control nematodes heat-induced reporter
that amplitude modulated RF exposure significantly
expression increased sharply only above 27 °C. There
enhanced UV induced apoptosis in cdc-48-mutated
was a disparity of 3 °C between exposed and control
cells, but not in cells exposed to unmodulated radia-
induction profiles and authors of research rejected
tion. The exposure of human epidermoid cancer KB
thermal explanation for this disparity.
cells to non-thermal RF EMR (1950 MHz) induced
RF radiation from GSM digital system (1800 MHz,
time-dependent apoptosis (45% after 3 h) . The
SAR = 1.5–2 W/kg, exposure duration 22 or 72 h) in-
exposure induced a differential activation of stress-
duced a significant upregulation of mRNA levels of the
dependent pathways with an increase of JNK-1 activity
HSP70 in p53-deficient pluripotent embryonic stem cells
and expression of HSP70 and HSP27 and decrease of
differentiating in vitro, paralleled by a low and transient
p38 kinase activity and HSP90 expression.
increase of c-jun, c-myc, and p21 levels in p53-deficient
In other study primary cultures of neurons and as-
cells, but not in wild-type cells . One-hour non-
trocytes were exposed to GSM mobile phone radiation
thermal exposure of human endothelial cells changed the
(1900 MHz) for 2 h in “on” and “stand-by” mode .
phosphorylation status of numerous proteins. One of the
Up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc
affected proteins was identified as HSP27 . Authors
(apoptosis associated speck-like protein) gene ex-
underlined that changes in protein phosphorylation is an
pression occurred in both “on” and “stand-by” modes
early sign of cell response to a stress factor.
in neurons, but only in “on” mode in astrocytes.
Series of studies of researchers from Columbia
Free radical processes could mediate many noxious
University, USA on HSP70 gene expression induced by
effects in living cell. It’s important that series of studies
low frequency EMR was performed [43–49]. Specific
demonstrated the change of the level of reactive oxy-
DNA sequence in gene HSP70 promoter sensitive
gen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes’ activity
to EMR was identified. The EMR sensitive region on the
in cells after the EMR exposure. So, rat exposed to
HSP70 promoter was not sensitive to increased tem-
900 MHz radiation (SAR = 0.016 W/kg for whole body,
perature. The EMR domain contained three nCTCTn
applied 30 min/day, for 10 days using an experimental
myc-binding sites at −230, −166 and −160 positions
exposure device) had significantly increased level of
relatively to the transcription initiation site and up-
malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in renal
stream of the binding sites for the heat shock (nGAAn)
tissue while superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and
and serum responsive elements. The sensitivity of
glutathione peroxidase activities significantly decreased
the DNA sequences nCTCTn to EMF exposures has
. In myocardial tissue of exposed rats the increased
been demonstrated by transfecting these sequences
levels of MDA and NO were detected too, while SOD,
into CAT and Luciferase reporter genes. Authors have
CAT and GSH-Px activities were reduced . Caffeic
indicated that the HSP70 promoter contains different
acid phenethyl ester treatment of rats reversed these
DNA regions that are specifically sensitive to different
effects. In other research rabbits were exposed to
stressors, thermal and non-thermal .
900 MHz GSM mobile phone irradiation (0.02 mW/cm2,
Experimental Oncology 32, 54–60, 2010 (June)
30 min/day, 7 days) . Serum SOD activity increased,
Among very primary physical mechanisms of non-
and serum NO level significantly decreased (more then
ionizing EMR interaction with biological systems the
twice) in exposed animals.
mobile charge interaction model of M. Blank should be
A significant increase in the MDA and carbonyl
noted. Model is based on the magnetic field interaction
group concentration in Wistar rat brain tissue was
with moving charges (Lorentz force). If charge flow is
registered during exposure of animals to a mobile test
associated with biological function in living cell, the
phone (SAR = 0.043–0.135 W/kg) during 20, 40 and
function may be altered . Magnetic field-induced
60 days. Decreased activity of catalase and increased
changes in enzyme activities of Na, K-ATPase and
activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) remained after 40 and
cytochrome oxidase, proportional to charge flow, was
60 days of exposure to mobile phones. Melatonin
demonstrated . Moreover the effect of accele ration
treatment significantly prevented the increase in the
of the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction by low frequency
MDA content and XO activity in the brain tissue after
electromagnetic fields was demonstrated Blank and Soo
40 days of exposure .
. Authors affirmed that the effect apparently was
It was found that treatment of rats immediately
due to electromagnetic field interaction with electrons
before and after irradiation exposure (2450-MHz,
transferred during the reaction.
power density 2 mW/cm2, average whole body
Another biophysical model for the action of oscillating
SAR = 1.2 W/kg, 2 h) with either melatonin or the
electromagnetic fields on cell is based on mechanism
spin-trap compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone
of forced-vibration of all the free ions on the surface
(PBN) blocks an increase in DNA single- and double-
of a cell’s plasma membrane, caused by an external
strand breaks in brain cells . Since both melatonin
oscillating field . Representative data was published
and PBN are efficient free radical scavengers, authors
recently  where low-strength magnetic fields (0.1 mT,
hypothesized that free radicals are involved in expo-
0.2 ms) triggers onset and offset evoked potentials, indi-
sure-induced DNA damage in the brain cells of rats.
cating that the detection process was a form of sensory
Only one-hour exposure of men semen samples by
transduction. Authors  hypothesized that the evoked
standard mobile phone has led to significant decrease of
potentials were initiated by a force exerted by the induced
semen mobility and viability, increase in ROS level and de-
electric field on an ion channel in the plasma membrane.
crease in ROS-TAC (total antioxidant capacity) score .
50 Hz magnetic fields induced free radical forma-
Recent studies in the field of electromagnetic biology
tion in mouse bone marrow-derived promonocytes and
have given sufficient grounds for more strict experts’
macrophages . It was demonstrated that mainly
estimation of possible association of cancer develop-
superoxide anion radicals were produced after 50 Hz
ment and radiation of mobile telephony devices. First of
magnetic field exposure, and the NADH-oxidase path-
all the results of epidemiological studies indicated sig-
way to produce superoxide anion radical was activated,
nificant increase of tumor development risk in long-term
but not the NADPH pathway. Treatment with Trolox or
(over 10 years) users of mobile phone [4, 20–22, 24, 27,
iron chelator blocked the effects of exposure of rats to
30, 33]. It’s significant that first expressive epidemiologi-
a 60 Hz magnetic field (0.01 mT, 24 h) caused a signifi-
cal data were revealed in Sweden, country with one of the
cant increase in DNA breaks . Authors suggested
longest history of mobile telephony. It is significant too that
that magnetic field initiates an iron-mediated process
essential increase of risks was detected for brain tumors
(Fenton reaction) that increases free radical formation
and salivary gland tumour. It means that direct association
in brain cells, leading to DNA damages.
of tumor development and the location of EMR exposure
Well-composed experimentally determined mecha-
exists. Two studies from developed countries (Germany
nism of radiofrequency radiation effect on living cell
and Israel) indicated a significant increase of cancer cases
was proposed by Israel researchers . They used
in population living near mobile base stations [36, 37].
the signaling inhibitors in irradiated to 875 MHz,
Just a one year operation of powerful (1500 W) base sta-
0.07 mW/cm2 electromagnetic waves Rat1 and HeLa
tion in Israel has led to dramatic increase of cancer cases
cells. It was found that the first step in EMR interaction
among people living in base station area. Such significant
with cell structures is mediated in the plasma membrane
increase of cancer incidence in mobile phone base station
by NADH-oxidase, which rapidly (during the minutes)
area correlates with previous data on significant increase
generates ROS. ROS directly stimulate matrix metal-
of leukemia rate in habitants of broadcasting tower areas
loproteinases and allow them to cleave and release
in Honolulu  and Hawaii .
heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF). This
These data arouse the concern about adequacy
secreted factor activates the EGF receptor, which ac-
of safety limits for mobile telephony, which are now
tivates the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)
solely based on the conception of thermal mechanism
cascade and thereby induces transcription and other
of biological activity of RF radiation. Bulk of recent
cellular processes. Authors underlined that intensity of
publications demonstrated the significant metabolic
radiation applied in the study was well below the aver-
changes in living cells under the low-intensive EMR.
age intensity of a regular mobile phone (approximately
The strong conception of mechanism of non-thermal
0.45 mW/cm2 in Israel), and no changes in temperature
biological effects of RF (MW) radiation remains to be
were detected in the medium during irradiation.
developed. Preliminary studies indicate that typical
Experimental Oncology 32, 54–60, 2010 (June)
metabolic pathways at list partially are involved in me-
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10. Hyland GJ. Physics and biology of mobile telephony.
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57]. On other hand some high-specific mechanisms
tion in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at
of low-intensive EMR interaction with cell structures
835 and 1900 MHz. IEEE transactions on microwave theory
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region on the HSP70 gene promoter . The very
12. Wertheimer N, Leeper E. Electrical wiring configurations
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