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SEALED court record - Reason Foundation/Institute for Justice Amicus Brief - Pain treatment activist Siobhan Reynolds trial

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SEALED court record - Reason Foundation/Institute for Justice Amicus Brief - Pain treatment activist Siobhan Reynolds trial - 1st amendment, freedom of speech
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NO. 09-3288
IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE TENTH CIRCUIT
__________________________________________________________________
In re: Grand Jury Investigation
________________________________________________________________
On Appeal from the Decision of the United States District Court,
For the District of Kansas
The Honorable Judge Julie A. Robinson Presiding
District Court No. 09-404 JAR
__________________________________________________________________
BRIEF AMICI CURIAE OF THE INSTITUTE FOR JUSTICE
AND REASON FOUNDATION IN SUPPORT OF
DEFENDANT-APPELLANT SIOBHAN REYNOLDS
__________________________________________________________________
GEOFFREY J. MICHAEL
ANNA K. THOMPSON
MARJORIE R. LEVINE
Arnold & Porter LLP
555 Twelfth Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20004
(202) 942-5000
Attorneys for Amici Curiae
Institute for Justice and
Reason Foundation


CORPORATE DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
Pursuant to Fed. R. App. P. 26.1, the Amici make the following disclosure:
Amicus Curiae -- the Institute for Justice -- has no parent corporation, and no
publicly held company owns ten percent or more of the Institute’s stock.
Amicus Curiae -- Reason Foundation -- has no parent corporation, and no
publicly held company owns ten percent or more of Reason’s stock.
i

CONSENT OF PARTIES TO FILING OF BRIEF
Pursuant to Fed. R. App. P. 29(a), the Amici have received consent to file
this amici brief from all counsel of record.
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Corporate Disclosure Statement.............................................................................. i
Consent of Parties to Filing of Brief....................................................................... ii
Interest of Amici Curiae..........................................................................................1
Summary of Argument ...........................................................................................3
Argument................................................................................................................5
I.
Disclosure of the Type of Information Called for by the
Grand Jury Subpoenas Here Chills Speech and Burdens
the Right to Engage in Anonymous Speech and
Association .........................................................................................5
A.
The First Amendment Protects the Right to Anonymous Speech
and Association........................................................................ 6
B.
Disclosure Pursuant to the Grand Jury Subpoenas Creates a
Disincentive to Engage in Political and Social Advocacy
Groups ................................................................................... 13
1.
Courts Have Previously Recognized the Potential
Chilling Effect of Mandatory Disclosure and Presumed
Its Existence Wherever the Government Seeks
Mandatory Disclosure.................................................. 13
2.
New Data Reveals That the Chilling Effect of Mandatory
Disclosure Is More Pervasive and Forceful Than
Previously Recognized................................................. 17
C.
Fear of Reprisals for Compliance with Such Disclosure
Requirements Is Both Real and Reasonable ........................... 20
II.
Disclosure of Information Regarding an Advocacy
Group’s Political Strategies Violates the First
Amendment Right to Association .....................................................25
Conclusion............................................................................................................30
Certificate of Compliance .................................................................................... vii
Certificate of Service .......................................................................................... viii
iii

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
Page(s)
CASES
AFL-CIO v. FEC,
333 F.3d 168 (D.C. Cir. 2003) .........................................................................26
Barnes v. E-Systems, Inc. Group Hosp. Med. & Surgical Ins. Plan,
501 U.S. 1301 (1991).......................................................................................22
Brown v. Socialist Workers ’74 Campaign Comm. (Ohio),
459 U.S. 87 (1982).......................................................................................9, 14
Davenport v. Washington Education Ass’n,
551 U.S. 177 (2007)...........................................................................................1
Doe v. Reed,
Nos. 09-35818, 09-35826, 09-35863, 2009 WL 3401297 (9th Cir. Oct.
22, 2009)..........................................................................................................22
Doe v. Reed,
No. 09-559, 2009 WL 3727712 (Nov. 6, 2009)................................................23
Doe v. Reed,
No. 09A356, 2009 WL 3358149 (U.S. Sup. Ct. Oct. 20. 2009)........................22
Doe v. Reed,
No. C09-5456BHS, 2009 WL 2971761 (W.D. Wash. Sept. 10, 2009) .......21, 22
Heartland Surgical Specialty Hospital, LLC v. Midwest Division, Inc.,
No. 05-2164-MLW-DWB, 2007 WL 852521 (D. Kan. Mar. 16, 2007) ....passim
In re Motor Fuel Temperature Sales Practices Litig.,
258 F.R.D. 407 (D. Kan. 2009).................................................................passim
McConnell v. FEC,
540 U.S. 93 (2003).............................................................................................1
McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission,
514 U.S. 334 (1995).....................................................................................7, 13
NAACP v. Alabama,
357 U.S. 449 (1958)..................................................................................passim
iv

Nat’l Commodity & Barter Ass’n v. United States,
951 F.2d 1172 (10th Cir. 1991)........................................................................10
Pleasant v. Lovell,
876 F.2d 787 (10th Cir. 1989)......................................................................5, 26
Pollard v. Roberts,
283 F. Supp. 248 (E.D. Ark. 1968) ................................................ 10, 15, 24, 25
Randall v. Sorrell,
548 U.S. 230 (2006)...........................................................................................1
Roberts v. U.S. Jaycees,
468 U.S. 609 (1984)...........................................................................................6
Talley v. California,
362 U.S. 60 (1960).............................................................................................7
United States v. Schneider,
No. 07-10234-MLB (D. Kan. Apr. 4, 2008) (Docket #57) ...........................5, 29
United States v. Schneider,
No. 07-10234-MLB (D. Kan. July 10, 2008) (Docket #146).................. 5, 12, 29
Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc. v. FEC,
546 U.S. 410 (2006)...........................................................................................1
Wyoming v. United States Department of Agriculture,
208 F.R.D. 449 (D.D.C. 2002) ...................................................................27, 28
STATUTES AND RULES
10th Cir. R. 29 ........................................................................................................1
OTHER AUTHORITIES
Andres Araiza, Prop 8 Threat: Fresno Police Close to Arrest, abc30.com,
Oct. 31, 2008, available at
http://abclocal.go.com/kfsn/story?section=news/local&id=6479879................20
v

Associated Press, Advocate Subject to Grand Jury, TOPEKA CAPITAL-J., Apr.
14, 2009, available at http://cjonline.com/news/local/2009-04-
14/advocate_subject_to_grand_jury#.................................................................8
Associated Press, John Kerry Grills Belgium Ambassador Nominee Over
Swift Boat Donation, foxnews.com, Feb. 28, 2007, available at
http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,255341,00.html...................................21
Carol J. Williams, Petition Signers Against Expanded Gay Rights Can’t
Keep Names Secret, L.A. TIMES, Oct. 23, 2009, available at
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-court-
confidential23-2009oct23,0,7762080.story ......................................................21
Daniel J. Solove, The First Amendment As Criminal Procedure, 82 N.Y.U.
L. REV. 112, 148 (2007)...............................................................................7, 14
Dick M. Carpenter II, Ph.D., Disclosure Costs: Unintended Consequences of
Campaign Finance Reform, Institute for Justice, Mar. 2007, available at
http://www.ij.org/images/pdf_folder/other_pubs/DisclosureCosts.pdf ......passim
Frank Owen, The DEA’s War on Pain Doctors, 48 VILLAGE VOICE, Nov. 5,
2003, available at 2003 WLNR 13347083.......................................................23
Harvey A. Silverglate, Wichita Witch Hunt, FORBES, Sept. 1, 2009, available
at http://www.forbes.com/2009/09/01/siobhan-reynolds-pain-relief-
network-wichita-justice-department-opinions-contributors-harvey-a-
silverglate.html. ...........................................................................................9, 24
Jacob Sullum, Drug Control Becomes Speech Control: A Federal
Prosecutor Tries to Silence a Pain Treatment Activist, REASON, Sept. 9,
2009, available at http://reason.com/archives/2009/09/09/drug-control-
becomes-speech-co ......................................................................................8, 23
John R. Lott, Jr. & Bradley Smith, Donor Disclosure Has Its Downsides:
Supporters of California's Prop. 8 Have Faced a Backlash, WALL ST. J.,
Dec. 26, 2008...................................................................................................20
Ronald T. Libby, Treating Doctors As Drug Dealers: The DEA’s War on
Prescription Painkillers, CATO INSTITUTE - POLICY ANALYSIS, June 16,
2005, available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa545.pdf.............................23
vi

Steve Lopez, A Life Thrown in Turmoil by $100 Donation for Prop. 8, L.A.
TIMES, Dec. 14, 2008 .......................................................................................20
vii

INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE
Pursuant to Rule 29 of this Court, the Institute for Justice (the “Institute”)
and the Reason Foundation (“Reason”) (collectively, the “Amici”), respectfully
submit this amici curiae brief in support of Appellant Siobhan Reynolds.
The Institute is a nonprofit public interest legal center dedicated to defending
the essential foundations of a free society: private property rights, economic and
educational liberty, and the free exchange of ideas. The Institute litigates
First Amendment cases throughout the country and files amicus curiae briefs in
important cases nationwide, including the Supreme Court’s decisions in
Davenport v. Washington Education Ass’n, 551 U.S. 177 (2007); Randall v.
Sorrell, 548 U.S. 230 (2006); Wisconsin Right to Life, Inc. v. FEC, 546 U.S. 410
(2006); and McConnell v. FEC, 540 U.S. 93 (2003). The Institute regularly
advocates on behalf of individuals whose right to speak and associate has been
infringed by the actions of the government. Further, the Institute has published
recent empirical studies discussing the burdens and costs of compelled disclosure
requirements. See Dick M. Carpenter II, Ph.D., Disclosure Costs: Unintended
Consequences of Campaign Finance Reform, Institute for Justice, Mar. 2007,
available at http://www.ij.org/images/pdf_folder/other_pubs/DisclosureCosts.pdf
(last visited Dec. 7, 2009) (Ex. A). Thus, the Institute believes that its legal
perspective, experience, and empirical research will provide this Court with
1

valuable insights regarding the impact of mandatory disclosure on associational
activity.
Reason Foundation is a national, nonpartisan, and nonprofit public policy
think tank, founded in 1978. Reason's mission is to promote liberty by developing,
applying, and communicating libertarian principles and policies, including free
markets, individual liberty, and the rule of law. Reason promotes policies that
allow and encourage individuals and voluntary institutions to flourish.
Reason advances its mission by publishing Reason magazine, as well as
commentary on its websites -- www.reason.com, www.reason.org,
and www.reason.tv, and by issuing policy research reports that promote choice,
competition, and a dynamic market economy as the foundation for human dignity
and progress. Among other issues, Reason has focused on the adverse
consequences of drug policy, including drug control's role in impeding chronic
pain patients from obtaining adequate pain treatment. To further Reason's
commitment to “Free Minds and Free Markets,” Reason selectively participates as
amicus curiae in cases raising significant constitutional issues. These include cases
involving First Amendment speech and associational issues as well as drug policy
issues involving the hardship caused by federal interference with medically-
necessary treatment permitted under state law.
2

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