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Soybean Meal Information CenterFACTSHEET

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Soybean meal dominates the market for protein supplements for poultry. There are a number of reasons for this, including its consistency in nutrient content, its ready availability year-round, and its high content of crude protein. Because poultry producers desire high-energy diets, soybean meal is a superior value because no other common plant protein feed stuff exceeds soybean meal in crude protein content.
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Content Preview
Soybean Meal Information Center
FACT SHEET
Soybean Use - Poultry
PARK W. WALDROUP.
DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
FAYETTEVILLE, AR 72701

DR. KEITH SMITH
KEITH SMITH AND ASSOCIATES
15 WINCHESTER ROAD
FARMINGTON, MO 63640


Soybean Meal in Poultry Nutrition
Soybean Meal is Ideal
History of Usage in
poultry from hatchery, feed
Protein for Poultry
Poultry Diets
manufacturing and processing. As
Soybean meal dominates the
Given the overwhelming use of
poultry entrepreneurs established
market for protein supplements for
soybean meal in poultry feeds
their own feed mills, they had no
poultry. There are a number of
today, it is difficult to imagine that
ties to the use of milling
UBLISHED BY reasons for this, including its
not much more than 50 years ago
byproducts and sought the least
consistency in nutrient content, its
soybean meal was not the
expensive and most reliable
ready availability year-round, and
predominant protein source. In the
sources of protein. The
its high content of crude protein.
early 1940s, manufacture of
development of the linear
Because poultry producers desire
poultry feed was dominated by
programming system of feed
high-energy diets, soybean meal is
large flour millers, who used
formulation in the mid 1960s gave
a superior value because no other
poultry feed as an outlet for wheat
further impetus to increased use of
common plant protein feedstuff
bran and other milling byproducts.
soybean meal. As nutritionists
exceeds soybean meal in crude
Animal feedstuffs such as meat and
began to use the computer to
protein content. Soybean meal
bone meal and fish meal were
formulate feeds, they quickly
matches or exceeds all other
favored as protein sources, not
found that simple diets based on
common plant proteins in both
only for the protein they provided
corn, soybean meal, a methionine
total and digestible amino acid
but also because they were rich
supplement, vitamins and minerals
content (Table 1). Soybean meal is
sources of vitamins and minerals.
were not only effective but also the
perhaps the only common protein
The onset of World War II caused
least-cost way to produce chickens.
supplement that is typically
an increased demand for meat
The rapid rise in poultry
included in poultry rations with no
production, but the supply of
consumption (Table 2) has created
limitation as to the quantity used.
imported meat proteins was
an even greater demand for
When properly toasted to denature
limited. This focused attention on
soybean meal, both in the United
the trypsin inhibitors, there are no
soybean meal as a potential protein
States and in other developing
antinutritive factors to consider
supplement. Development of
countries.
when formulating diets.
processes to toast the soybean meal
to denature trypsin inhibitors,
Soybean Meal Usage
With the single exception of
along with development of systems
by the Poultry
methionine, soybean meal is an
to produce vitamins by chemical
Industry
almost ideal protein supplement for
synthesis and fermentation,
The poultry industry, including
all types of poultry. When blended
allowed for the rapid increase in
broilers, turkeys and laying hens, is
with corn or grain sorghum,
the demand for soybean meal. The
the major user of soybean meal in
soybean meal provides
final factor that allowed for greater
the United States. Broilers and
a good balance of all the essential
use of soybean meal was the
turkeys consume about 44 percent
amino acids needed by poultry
discovery of vitamin B12 in 1948.
of all the soybeans used by
except for methionine. However,
This ended the necessity for the
livestock in the United States, with
methionine is economically
inclusion of animal protein sources
layers consuming an additional 7
provided by supplements produced
in feeds for monogastrics animals.
percent, for a total of 51 percent
by the chemical industry, allowing
(Table 3). Soybean meal is by far
simple corn-soybean meal diets
Soybean Meal and the
the dominant plant protein
to effectively meet the amino acid
Integrated Broiler
produced in the United States
requirements of the chick.
I n d u s t ry
(Table 4). Few of the other plant
The development of the integrated
proteins such as cottonseed meal or
system of poultry production began
sunflower meal are used by the
in the 1950s when progressive
poultry industry. It is estimated
individuals set up systems where
that more than 98 percent of the
they controlled the production of
plant protein used in poultry feeds
2

is from soybean meal, with more
than 66 percent of all the protein in
poultry diets provided from
soybean meal. Broilers have a
high demand for crude protein and
amino acids (Table 5), and thus
need a protein source high in
amino acids. Results from a recent
industry survey indicate that
typical amounts of soybean meal
added are 29.4 percent in starter
feeds, 23.8 percent in grower feeds
and 17.8 percent in finisher diets.
Declining Usage of
is placed in a solution containing
to disease. However, more
Meat Byproducts
urea, is the most widely used
attention is being focused today on
in Poultry Feed
method to monitor proper toasting
improving nutritive value. Most of
Because of consumer concerns
of soybean meal for animal feed.
the focus has been on improving the
about the health and safety of
Although there is no official urease
methionine content, reducing the
animals fed rendered meat
level specified for poultry, the
phytate-bound phosphorus, and
byproducts, coupled with the
general recommendation is that the
reducing the oligosaccharide
desire to reduce excessive
urease be less than 0.20 pH rise;
c o n t e n t .
phosphorus in poultry excreta, the
however, recent studies have
amount of supplemental meat
shown that as much as 0.50 pH
Although the deficiency of
products in poultry feeds has
rise is acceptable. Because the
methionine is often mentioned as a
dropped rapidly in the last two
urease test does not detect over-
detriment to the use of soybean
years. A recent agricultural survey
processing, it is desirable to have
meal in poultry feeds, it is readily
indicated that animal proteins were
some residual urease activity (0.01
and economically produced by
added at less than 3 percent in
to 0.05 units). Over-processing is
chemical synthesis, using toxic
poultry feeds, compared with about
best determined by measuring
byproducts of the chemical industry
5 percent in previous years. This
protein solubility in a KOH
to produce a desirable and
will place further demands upon
solution. It is suggested that KOH
economical feed supplement.
soybean meal as a protein source
solubility in excess of 85 percent
Although plant breeders have
for poultry.
or less than 70 percent indicates
expressed a desire to increase the
under- or over-processing of the
methionine content of soybeans, it is
Proper Processing
meal. However, studies are not
not a high priority due to the
consistent in this respect. Particle
economy of providing methionine in
Necessary
size of the meal plays a great role
supplemental form.
Soybeans must be heat-processed
in the consistency of responses to
to denature the various protease
the KOH solubility test.
Much of the phosphorus in
inhibitors, the chief of which are
soybeans is present in a complex,
the trypsin inhibitors. Both over-
Improving Nutritive
with phytic acid rendering the
processing, which ties up essential
phosphorus in a poorly digested
amino acids (especially Lysine),
Value Through
form for monogastrics animals.
and under-processing are
Plant Breeding
Phosphorus is one of the most
considered detrimental to the
As in many crops, the primary focus
expensive nutrients in a poultry diet,
effective usage of soybean meal.
of plant breeders has been on
and livestock producers everywhere
The urease test, which measures
increased yield or better resistance
are becoming more concerned about
the rise in pH when soybean meal
the effects of phosphorus in the
3

Table 1. Typical Nutrient Composition of Commonly Used Plant Protein Sources for Poultr y
Soybean Soybean Soybean Sunflower Rapeseed Peanut Sesame Cottonseed Safflower
AS-FED BASIS
Meal 44 Meal 46 Meal 48 Meal 34 Meal 00 Meal Meal Meal Meal
Dry matter % 90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00
90.00
Crude protein % 4 3 . 5 0
4 6 . 0 0
4 9 . 0 0
3 4 . 0 0
3 5 . 5 0
5 0 . 0 0
4 5 . 0 0
4 0 . 0 0
2 6 . 0 0
Crude fat %
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
2.50
1.50
1.00
1.50
1.50
Crude fiber %
7.50
5.00
3.50
23.00
11.00
10.00
7.00
13.50
30.00
ME, kcal/g
2.21
2.33
2.46
1.30
1.79
2.18
1.93
1.57
1.15
TOTAL AMINO ACIDS (%)
Lys
2.74
2.89
3.07
1.18
2.03
1.70
1.21
1.52
0.88
Met
0.60
0.63
0.68
0.72
0.75
0.50
1.26
0.60
0.43
Cys
0.63
0.67
0.71
0.55
0.89
0.62
0.73
0.64
0.42
Thr
1.72
1.82
1.94
1.21
1.53
1.28
1.57
1.28
0.82
Trp
0.59
0.62
0.66
0.45
0.43
0.50
0.63
0.49
0.52
Arg
3.28
3.45
3.66
2.68
2.13
5.68
5.01
4.12
2.50
Gly
1.86
1.93
2.07
1.92
1.77
2.75
2.29
1.60
1.48
Ser
2.25
2.40
2.54
1.40
1.52
2.25
2.04
1.68
1.17
His
1.17
1.23
1.31
0.82
0.94
1.16
1.08
1.08
0.73
Ile
2.13
2.28
2.45
1.25
1.47
1.73
1.71
1.36
0.99
Leu
3.40
3.55
3.83
2.12
2.46
2.98
3.02
2.28
1.69
Phe
2.22
2.36
2.52
1.50
1.40
2.44
2.02
1.92
1.27
Val
2.19
2.36
2.50
1.78
1.92
2.07
2.20
1.88
1.38
DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS (%)
Lys
2.38
2.58
2.74
1.02
1.62
1.30
1.10
0.91
0.61
Met
0.53
0.57
0.62
0.67
0.68
0.44
1.19
0.47
0.37
Cys
0.50
0.56
0.60
0.44
0.73
0.46
0.65
0.33
0.28
Thr
1.42
1.59
1.70
1.04
1.26
1.09
1.42
0.85
0.58
Trp
0.49
0.52
0.56
0.41
0.38
n.a
n.a
0.32
0.47
Arg
2.97
3.24
3.43
2.56
1.97
5.26
4.78
3.56
2.25
Gly
1.48
1.66
1.78
1.47
1.52
1.99
2.03
1.03
1.02
Ser
1.90
2.15
2.28
1.22
1.30
1.92
1.85
1.13
0.80
His
1.04
1.12
1.20
0.73
0.81
0.98
1.03
0.85
0.63
Ile
1.87
2.05
2.21
1.34
1.27
1.56
1.58
0.93
0.79
Leu
2.96
3.18
3.43
1.93
2.19
2.71
2.80
1.64
1.36
Phe
1.95
2.14
2.29
1.39
1.26
2.24
1.90
1.57
1.05
Val
1.82
2.08
2.21
1.56
1.54
1.84
1.98
1.35
1.10
Table 2. U.S. Meat Consumption (Pounds Per Capita)
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
RED MEAT
Beef
68.6
65.4
63.9
63.7
62.8
61.5
63.6
64.4
65.0
63.8
64.9
Veal
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.7
Pork
49.8
48.4
46.4
46.9
49.5
48.9
49.6
49.0
46.0
45.6
49.1
Lamb
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9
POULTRY
Chicken
39.6
40.9
42.4
44.2
46.7
48.5
49.3
48.8
49.8
50.9
51.6
Turkey
12.4
13.1
13.8
14.1
14.1
14.0
14.1
14.1
14.6
13.9
14.2
FISH AND SHELLFISH
15.1
15.6
15.0
14.8
14.7
14.9
15.1
14.9
14.7
14.5
14.5
Source: USDA and National Marine Fisheries Service
Table 3. Utilization of Soybean Meal by Livestock in the United States
SPECIES
MILLION
PERCENT
METRIC TONS
OF TOTAL
Poultry
12.36
44
Swine
6.69
24
Beef
3.45
13
Eggs
1.88
7
Dairy
1.61
6
Pet foods
0.74
3
Aquaculture
0.18
1
Source:
Other
0.65
2
United Soybean Board
TOTAL
27.56
100
1999/2000
4

manure upon eutrophication of surface
galactosidase that is absent in poultry.
breeding programs that concentrate on
waters. Although commercial phytase
Because carbohydrates constitute
reducing oligosaccharides in the seed
supplements are available, their cost
approximately 35 percent of the
may be the most desirable route.
presently is greater than the amount of
soybean meal, the presence of these
phosphorus they release. Genetic
poorly digestible carbohydrates
C o n c l u s i o n s
soybean mutants have been found with
minimizes the amount of metabolizable
Soybean meal is and will continue to be
a lower percentage of their phosphorus
e n e rgy the chick can derive from the
the preferred protein supplement for
bound in the phytate form. To date,
meal. In addition, the excreted
poultry feeds. With the probable decline
h o w e v e r, the productivity of low-
carbohydrates are very sticky, leading to
in the use of animal byproducts, even
phytate soybeans has been poor.
a wet, sticky litter that may adhere to
more soybean meal will be used.
Soybean meal contains one of the
the bottom of the feet and possibly lead
Genetic improvements in reducing the
highest levels of phosphorus of all plant
to leg disorders. These may be
phytate-bound phosphorus, and
proteins, so genetic improvements in
removed from the soybean meal by
reduction or elimination of
this area would be highly beneficial to
ethanol extraction, as done in the
oligosaccharide carbohydrates are the
the poultry industry.
production of high-protein soy isolates.
most important economical traits that
As it is unlikely that the soybean
should be addressed.
The other major factor that should be
processing industry will markedly
addressed by either selective breeding
modify its processing procedures,
or by modifications in processing
procedures is the soybean carbohydrate.
Table 5.
SPECIES
Protein and Amino Acid Requirements
Much of the carbohydrate in soybeans
of Broiler Chickens 1 MILLION
is present as the oligosaccharides
known as raffinose and stachyose.
NUTRIENT UNIT 0 - 3 WEEKS 3 - 6 WEEKS 6 - 8 W E E K S
These require the enzyme alpha-
Metabolizable
energy 2
Kcal/kg
3200 3200 3200
Crude protein3
%
23.00
20.00
18.00
Table 4. Production of Processed Protein
Arginine
%
1.25
1.10
1.00
Sources and Byproducts in the United States
Glycine + Serine
%
1.25
1.14
0.97
(1,000 metric tons)
Histidine
%
0.35
0.32
0.27
Isoleucine
%
0.80
0.73
0.62
FEED
1995
1996
1997
Leucine
%
1.20
1.09
0.93
High Protein Oilseed Meals
Lysine
%
1.10
1.00
0.85
Soybean
24114
24786
26208
Cottonseed
2685
2815
2682
Methionine
%
0.50
0.38
0.32
Linseed
104
99
111
Methionine +Cystine%
0.90
0.72
0.60
Peanut
164
128
86
Phenylalanine
%
0.72
0.65
0.56
Sunflower
434
419
482
Phenylalanine +
Canola
1171
1101
1552
Total oilseed meals
28672
29348
31121
Tyrosine
%
1.34
1.22
1.04
Animal Protein
Proline
%
0.60
0.55
0.46
Tankage and meat meal
2300
2525
2269
Threonine
%
0.80
0.74
0.68
Fish meal and solubles
236
274
228
Tryptophan
%
0.20
0.18
0.16
Milk products
408
336
375
Total animal proteins
2944
3135
2872
Valine
%
0.90
0.82
0.70
Grain Protein Feeds
Gluten feed and meal
1064
3471
3247
1Source: National Research Council, 1994
Other
Wheat millfeeds
6689
6601
6575
2These are typical energy concentrations. Different energy values may be appropriate
Rice millfeeds
602
495
378
depending upon local ingredient prices and availability.
Alfalfa meal
229
225
250
Fats and oils
1137
1157
1319
3Broiler chickens do not have a requirement for crude protein per se. However, there
Miscellaneous byproduct
should be sufficient crude protein to ensure an adequate nitrogen supply for synthesis
feeds
1137
1432
1446
of dietary dispensable amino acids. Suggested requirements for crude protein are typical
Total other
10075
9910
9968
of those derived with corn and soybean meal-based diets, and levels can be reduced
GRAND TOTAL
41536
45864
47208
when synthetic amino acids are fed.
Source: Feedstuffs Reference Issue, July 30, 1999
5

The United Soybean Board’s
Better Bean Initiative and the Poultry Industry
by Nick Bajjalieh, Ph.D.
As noted in Dr. Waldroup’s article
included in this newsletter, the
poultry industry is the largest end-
user of soybean meal within the
United States. The needs of the
poultry industry were an important
consideration when the United
Soybean Board (USB) began to
identify soybean meal target traits
as part of the Better Bean Initiative
(BBI).
USB’s goal of increasing demand
for U.S.-produced soybean meal is
based on further enhancing what Dr.
Waldroup described as a product of
“superior value.” In fact, BBI is
designed to address the three areas
of improvement suggested by Dr.
Waldroup, including improved
application. Depending on the
Net economic value realized defines
carbohydrate characteristics,
specific trait, applications include
and drives this type of opportunity.
reduced levels of phytate-bound
nutritional, environmental and
Added costs dilute the gross value
phosphorus and increased sulfur
production/management
of a trait package, thereby reducing
amino acid levels. The specific
opportunities, as pointed out by Dr.
net added value. Therefore, added
“primary” meal targets for BBI are
Waldroup relative to the association
costs must be identified and
outlined below.
between soybean carbohydrate and
controlled. Otherwise, traits that
wet sticky litter. The economic
represent
Better Bean Initiative Primary Meal Trait Targets
Maximum Displacement
Changes in High Protein Meal
of Selected Ingredient
Primary Traits
From To Coefficient of Change f o r Each 100 lbs of Meal Used
Increased Methionine + Cystine
1.4%
2.1%
1.5X
0.7 lb DL Methionine
Reduced Phytate-Bound Phosphorus
0.4%
0.2%
0.5X
0.95 lb Monocal Phos.
Increased Metabolizable Energy (ME)
^ 150 kcal ME/lb Swine: Approx 1.1X
4.2 lbs Added Fat
(From Improved Carbohydrate Characteristics)
Broilers: Approx 1.13X
NOTE: Must insure that improvements in one area do not result in overriding losses in others.
The above compositional
value represented by a trait is a
significant gross end-use value may
improvements represent inherent
function of the application(s)
become commercially unsustainable
added value. Such inherent value is
addressed and their economic value
… an opportunity lost!
translated into economic value only
in the context of a defined situation.
As noted at the bottom of the table,
in the context of a given
a stipulation of BBI is that, as we
6

focus on improving one or more
another important consideration.
The marketplace ultimately
compositional characteristics, we
A tenet of BBI is the
determines economic value and
do not add cost by degrading other
commoditization of U.S. soybeans
how it is distributed throughout the
economically relevant components.
bearing BBI targeted traits. While
chain. BBI seeks to add inherent
These include other meal
the early phase-in period for each
value to soybean meal produced
characteristics, oil level and its
new generation of soybeans with
using U.S.-grown soybeans, and
composition for the whole
enhanced traits will require some
bring it to market with minimal
soybean, as well as crop yield per
level of identity preservation (IP)
added cost. If successful, BBI will
acre. As we move forward,
and associated cost, the ultimate
add considerable value to the U.S.
appropriate evaluations will be an
end game is its commoditization.
soybean value chain. The poultry
integral part of the process. USB
Utilizing the commodity system
industry stands to be a principal
encourages input from the feed
will allow BBI enhanced soybean
extractor of the meal value created
industry throughout this ongoing
products to be brought through the
and, with it, a beneficiary
process.
value chain with significantly
of this initiative.
reduced system costs. Thus, more
Costs associated with the system
of the value actually created will
utilized to deliver the enhanced
be available to improve the value
meal product to its end-user are
chain.
7

Summary Comments
Soybean meal is and will continue to be the preferred
The Better Bean Initiative seeks to add inherent value
protein supplement for poultry feeds. With the probable
to soybean meal produced using U.S.-grown soybeans.
decline in the use of animal byproducts, even more
If successful, BBI will add considerable value to the
soybean meal will be used. Genetic improvements in
U.S. soybean value chain. The poultry industry stands
reducing the phytate-bound phosphorous, and reduction
to be a principal extractor of the meal value created
or elimination of oligosaccharide carbohydrates are the
and, with it, a beneficiary of this initiative.
most important economical traits that should be
addressed.
References
N. L. Bajjalieh. May, 2002. The United Soybean Board’s
Better Bean Initiative and the Poultry Industry. Soybean Meal
Infosource.
For more information, please contact:
Dr. Keith Smith
Keith Smith and Associates
15 Winchester Road
Farmington, MO 63640
The SOYBEAN MEAL INFORMATION CENTER is sponsored by the Soybean
Checkoff: Including the checkoff boards from Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,
Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio and the United Soybean Board

8

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