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The Art of Garment Making - 1952 - Chapter 6 - Lounge Coats

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Chapter six, describing the make-up process of lounge coats.
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1
Chapter VI
The Lounge Jacket
THE lounge jacket is undoubtedly the most widely worn one has been decided to take a style which is likely to remain in favour
at the present time, either as part of a suit or as an "odd" for quite a long time.
garment. It is capable of many variations in general styling--
We shall deal with the button-two model, mainly, but references
such as number of buttons, number and type of pockets, shape will be made to the button-three style also. Each will be assumed to
of fronts and width of collar and lapels. And, of course, it can be modelled on what would be called moderate lines, with reasonable
undergo various modifications in length, general size and shape. shaping at the waist and with a certain amount of "chest" judiciously
For consideration in this chapter on the making of the lounge, it effected.
Pattern Parts
rear) part of the sleeve; F denotes a lowered
We will start at the very beginning of pitch mark, often referred to as the "fashion"
things and take a look at the pattern parts, pitch. Full details of these pitches are given
as the cutter would have them on his board. in the section of this chapter devoted to the
Diagram 59--The upper drawing here making and insertion of sleeves.
shows the forepart pattern of a lounge jacket,
Diagram 60--Here we have another kind
styled for the button-three front. There is of forepart--the one usually termed the
an under-arm dart (1), a front dart (2); the side body style. In this, the under-arm dart
pocket (cross or side pocket) level is indicated is continued right through to the bottom,
by 3. At 4 we have a balance mark, which thus becoming a full-length under-arm
will coincide with a similar one on the back. seam. The front portion of the pattern is so
This is the side-seam position. Sometimes arranged that the front dart is increased a
the under-arm dart is terminated at about 1" little, having been manipulated by the cutter
below the base of the scye, as denoted at A. to produce a fairly full chest effect. Front of
The outside breast pocket level is shown by B. the cross pocket mouth is shown at P and its
On the middle drawing there are certain continuation on what will be the sidebody
style differences to be noted. Again we have portion is seen at PX. Balance marks are
a lounge forepart pattern, this time with the introduced at 1 and 2 on the sidebody and
button-two styling and with a little more at 3 and 4 on the front portion. These will be
cut-away to the front. The two darts are brought together when the under-arm seam
DIA. 59
shown by 1 and 2; in this case the under- is sewn out. (It is omitted on this drawing).
arm dart (1) is left open at the top (A); this
One more note on the forepart patterns
is often done when it is required to give a il ustrated--it concerns the small "tick" at
little more "hip room" to the garment. At the front scye curve. This is the mark for
3 we have the mark for a slanting type of the front pitch of the sleeve.
pocket--a frequent feature nowadays. Also
indicated on this drawing are the outlines of
The lower drawing here shows the forepart
a patch pocket (see dash-lines). This type of pattern for a double-breasted, or reefer, style
pocket is mostly adopted for the so-called of jacket. It is included to give an impression
"odd" garment, or sports jacket. The side- of the difference between this style and the
seam balance mark is against seen at 4 and lounge. Darts and pocket levels are indicated;
the outside breast pocket level is marked by sometimes the front dart is taken right through,
B. Letter D denotes the position of what is as indicated by the dash line. A gorge dart,
termed a gorge dart, sometimes adopted, but also marked here, is often adopted.
not so frequently now as at one time.
Actual making of the reefer jacket will
The bot om drawing shows a typical lounge not be discussed in this book, but it may
jacket back pattern. Notice the balance mark be said that the main features of it, so far
at 4, to match that on the forepart in the same as tailoring is concerned are exactly the
position. N marks the normal, or standard, same as those in the make-up of the single-
DIA. 60
sleeve pitch position for the hindarm (or breasted lounge jacket.

2

Diagram 61--This diagram depicts three styles of back. The top
one is cut for a centre vent. The projection at the bottom (left) is the
allowance made on the basic pattern. The under-lap (right half of
back) is shown by 1, and the part which will be turned back on the
left half is indicated by the dash line at 2.
In the middle drawing we have a back pattern cut for side vents
to be introduced (see the addition at 3).
The bottom drawing gives an impression of a back pattern for a
style which has small pleats, or tucks, in the shoulder-earn; these are
indicated at 4. In the waist (5) are four small pleats (there will be
three in each half back and one in the centre back, making a total of
seven). This kind of back is often adopted for jackets, in the lounge
general style, that are intended for sports or leisure wear.
In each of the backs mentioned, it will be noted, the two sleeve
pitches (normal and fashion) are indicated by N and F respectively.
4
Diagram 62--Here we see the sleeve pattern parts. The top
4
F
N
drawing shows what is called the top-half of the standard two-piece
F
N4
sleeve; immediately below it is the under-half pattern. These two
DIA. 61
F
parts are cut to make up into what is sometimes termed the "fifty-
N
fifty" style of sleeve. Like many trade terms, this is not strictly
adequate, for the sleeve is not actual y half-and-half. However, it
may conveniently indicate that this type of sleeve is cut without the
so-called false forearm.
The latter style is indicated on the two lower drawings, which
again show the top-half and under-half patterns. The false forearm
is real y a displacement of the forearm seam. What happens is that
(usual y) an extra inch is allowed on the forearm of the top-half and
a similar amount is taken off the under-half.
This can be appreciated by the reader if he compares the two
upper drawings with the two lower ones. The two "ticks" on the
top-half in the lower ones indicate where the original forearm was
located. When this kind of sleeve is made up balance marks 1 and
2 (top-half) will be joined to balance marks 3 and 4 (under-half).
There will be an easing-in between 3 and 4 of the under-half and
a slight stretching between 1 and 2 of the top-half. This process is
dealt with in detail later in the chapter.
One more item on the sleeve patterns. The letters N and F on
each of the lower drawings will give an idea of what happens when
a sleeve is cut to have a "fashion" pitch. The line from N shows the
cut for the normal pitch and the line from F denotes that for the
"fashion" pitch. In other words, the top-half will be a little wider at
the top and the under-half will be a little narrower. In most cases, the
"fashion" pitch is made lower than the normal pitch-in a gentleman's
DIA. 62
lounge jacket. (For ladies' jackets a greater "drop" is usual y made).

3
Cloth Parts Cut
Section 2 indicates the foreparts, with form or in the so-called "pocket" baste. (The
Having now given a detailed account inlays allowed at the shoulder (E), the scye (F latter means that the pockets have been put in
of the pattern sections, we can next devote and G), the side-seam (HH) and the bottom and most of the seams sewn out and pressed
(JJ). There is also an inlay at the gorge (L) open). When the jacket is intended to be
attention to the cloth parts of the lounge and down the front edge (KK).
actual y made up, the front edge inlay will be
jacket. They are illustrated on Diagram
cut away. (This is il ustrated on Section 5).
63, The button-three style is taken as an
As will be seen, both back and foreparts
Section 3--This shows the top-half of
example.
have been mark-stitched (see the first chapter
in this book) in the lines marked out by the the sleeve, with the cuff up-turn allowed at
Section 1 shows the back, as it will appear cutter. The pocket mouth position, for the M. The small projecting part at N is allowed
when it comes to the tailor. There is an inlay cross pockets, has been mark-stitched also (I). there in order that it will take the vent tack of
at the back neck (A), down the centre back-
the cuff when the sleeve is made up. Notice
The inlay down the front edge (KK) will be
seam (BB) and at the bot om (C). Sometimes a
that the false forearm is indicated here, with
left in this way if the jacket is to be prepared mark-stitches inserted to locate the original
small inlay is left at D, as shown by dash-lines. for a first fitting, in either the "skeleton" baste run. These will be used later in the sleeve
make-up.
Section 4--Here is the under-half of the
sleeve. There are inlays at the hindarm (O
and PP) and at the cuff (R), the last being
the up-turn. Notice that the hindarm inlay
is extended outwards at the bottom; this is
to allow for the under part of the cuff vent.
Section 5--As mentioned above, this
shows the foreparts as they would be received
from the cutter for make-up. The inlays at
scye, shoulder-seam and gorge have been
retained, but that on the front edge (KK of
Section 2) has been removed. (An inlay,
about 1/2", may be left along the lapel edge to
allow for "working.") Some cutters prefer to
remove the shoulder inlay, too, as they say it
is sometimes inclined to "bind" the shoulder-
seam and give rise to creases there in the
finished jacket. This is a matter of opinion;
if the inlay is not too wide, very little trouble
will be found in this direction. The retained
inlay at the shoulder will be cut as the dash
line on Section 5; if it is dispensed with, the
shoulder will be as the solid outline.
Marking-stitches have been omitted from
this il ustration, for the sake of clarity.
To conclude this subject of inlays, it may be
well to say that no inlay, whatever may be its
position on a garment, should be excessively
wide. Its purpose is to make provision for
rectifications at fittings and to allow for any
increase in size that may be required. Some
cutters are inclined to eliminate all inlays,
with the exception of those at the scye and
the gorge--a practice almost universally
adopted by the wholesale clothing trade.
However, for our purpose here it has been
DIA. 63
decided to use inlays in certain places--all
of them moderate in width.

4

The Canvases
Diagram 64 shows three methods of cutting canvases for the
fronts of a lounge jacket.
The top drawing shows the canvas cut on the "straight." The lapel
crease line is indicated by a dash-line; the projection at A is made so
that it will take the front tack of the cross pocket. A dart is to be taken
out at D, to correspond to the front dart of the cloth forepart. There
will be a puff inserted at 1 and (in some cases) slits or puffs at 2 and 3.
In the centre drawing we have one example of canvas cut on the
bias. It will be noted here that there is a running on the "straight"
at the shoulder (3), the gorge (4) and the scye (5). Puffs and slits
will have to be adopted at these parts if successful shoulder shaping
is to be achieved. Again, the dart is indicated at D.
The bottom drawing gives an idea of a second way of cutting
canvases on the bias grain--and this is a better way than that just
described. It will be seen that there is bias at gorge (6), shoulder (7)
and scye (8). This is a very good feature, for it will allow shoulder
shaping to be achieved without the insertion of puffs or the cutting
out of slits. Some experienced tailors prefer this method of cutting
and dealing with canvases.
There is one possible "snag," however. Notice that the crease line
of the lapel (9) is also on the bias. This may not always be a good
thing, for this part of the canvas has to act, with the bridle linen (to
be dealt with later), as a kind of controlling agent on the crease of
the lapel. However, if the bridling is done with care there should be
sufficient control effected.
DIA. 64
The over-all advantage in cutting canvases on the bias is that there
is imparted to them a kind of elasticity down the whole length of the
forepart in which they are inserted; this is considered a great virtue in
high-class tailoring circles. On the other hand, many tailors, by means
of skilful work, are able to put straight grain canvas in jackets very
effectively, giving the fronts a reasonable amount of elasticity and avoiding
any "drawing up" in the finished garment. One thing must be added al
canvas to be used in the making of jackets should be of the best quality.
Whether canvases should be of linen (shrunk duck), cotton-and-
hair, wool-and-hair, or in a man-made fibre fabric is a matter which
DIA. 65
will always be under debate among tailors. It is largely affected by
the type of cloth in which the garment is being made (its weight,
Drape and "Chest"
thickness and density) and by the grade of workmanship available.
Diagram 65 shows a canvas cut with the object of producing a
For the purpose of this chapter on lounge jacket make-up it has certain amount of drape at the front scye of the jacket, in a modified
been decided to il ustrate the linen canvas. Operations involved in
its cutting and insertion will apply almost equally to other kinds form, and an appearance of "chest." This canvas is cut on a bias and
of canvas. All good linen canvases will be thoroughly shrunk the front dart is well cut out to provide the extra upper "room"
before the tailor gets them; but some jacket-makers insist on more required in this instance. Two short dart are taken out on the inner
shrinking in the workshop--usually by means of immersion of edge, just below the scye (See 1 and 2). When these are closed, they
the canvas in a bucket of water and a pressing of it with a hot iron will be brought edge-to-edge and serged over. The fullness resulting
afterwards. Certainly, it is advisable to treat all wool-and-hair from this will form a kind of "round" in the canvas at S, where the
canvases in this way before they are cut and prepared for insertion. dash line indicates the approximate position of the drape. This will
The main thing to remember is this--canvases must never be short coincide with the drape allowance already made by the cutter when
when they are put in the fronts of jackets (or in any other garments
for which they are used). There must always be plenty of "play" in he marked up the cloth forepart.
them, so that no contraction occurs in the fronts of the jacket.

5
Canvas Preparation
There are some other things to be done in the preparation of
the canvases, things which largely affect the chest and shoulder
regions of the garment. These are shown on Diagram 66.
Section A--This represents a piece of felt, or padding as it is
sometimes called, cut to extend through the shoulder section and
down over the chest area.
Section B--Here we have a piece of special y manufactured hair
canvas, which will be placed under the felt in the shoulder region.
These two pieces are shown in position on the upper part of the
main canvas in the drawing on the upper right. The front dart in
the main canvas is denoted by D and its companion, a short dart in
the felt, is seen at X. Notice that X is placed a little away from D, so
that there is no thickness caused--as would be the case if the two
joinings fell together. (This is an important consideration when
lightweight materials are being made up).
Note: In this drawing the shoulder canvas (B) is shown as
though it were on top of the felt (A). This has been done so that
the position of both can be clearly indicated. Actually, in make-
up, the shoulder canvas will be next to the main canvas and the
felt on top. A photograph illustrates this later.
The felt and hair canvas are again shown in the drawing below
the one just described. In this, however, there are indications of the
puffs and/or darts that will be included in the two pieces of material.
It is essential for there to be a relationship between the felt and hair
canvas and the main body canvas. Whatever shaping is put into
one must be put into al .
DIA. 66
Section 1 shows a body canvas with the front dart (1) final y
prepared. Notice the little "step" at its termination (2); this will allow
for the join. The dart may be closed by overlapping its two edges, or
the edges may be brought together, serged, and bound with a strip of
silesia--or other thin fabric. Sometimes a slit is made at 3, as shown,
to prevent any shortness on the inner edge of the canvas. A better
plan may be to drop the inner edge at its bottom, as indicated at 4.
When the bottom edge is brought up to line with the mark-stitches
in the forepart, 4 will move upwards and will thereby give a little
extra length along the inner edge of the canvas.
Section 2 gives an impression of the cloth forepart laid on the
canvas, the latter being extended as the white areas at shoulder, gorge
and lapel edge. These al owances over the cloth parts are made so that
there is plenty of "play" for working the canvases into the fore part.
DIA. 67
The small Section 3 gives an impression of a shoulder hair
canvas portion that has had a puff, or gusset, inserted in it at the
Section 5 indicates the under-col ar, with the crease line dividing
shoulder-seam position. This is done to ensure a correct shaping of stand and fall mark-stitched, and Section 6 depicts the top-col ar,
the shoulder and to get a nice, clean run up into the neck. The same or these two portions, the under-col ar is cut in two sections, to be
idea, as already indicated, is carried out in the main body canvas.
joined by a centre seam which will correspond with that of the centre
The Fittings
back of the jacket; the top-col ar is cut so that its centre fal s on the
We now come to consideration of the various so-cal ed "fittings" crease or fold of the cloth.
for the jacket-the facings, flaps, welts, jettings, pocketings, etc.
The facings of the jacket are shown on the centre drawing. Most
Diagram 67--On this diagram, Section 1 shows the flaps (one (or facings are now cut so that the shoulder portion finishes at the dash
each cross pocket, laid together); Section 2 shows the cross pocket line. At one time, the facings were cut as shown at A, extending right
jettings (or facings if jettings are not to be employed); Section 3 across the shoulder area. This is not so frequently done nowadays,
shows the outside breast pocket welt and Section 4 shows the facing though it is sometimes in half-lined or in unlined jackets; it is also
for that pocket.
adopted for certain overcoats.

6

Diagram 68--First, to deal with the smaller
On the under-half, there is a 3/4" allowance
sections. of which Section 1 shows the silesia at the under-scye position, as indicated by US,
cut for the cross, or side, pockets. It is usual y and a small addition is made at the forearm,
cut about 8" wide for each pocket and its F. The hindarm part of the lining will be cut
depth will come roughly to the edge of the to include the inlay marked and left on the
up-turn at the bottom edge of the forepart. cloth under-half.
General y, a piece of silesia 18" by 8" will be
enough for the making of one cross pocket.
At the bottom of both section the lining is
general y cut to clear the bottom of the cloth
Section 2 shows the pocketing for the outside upturn by about 1".
and inside breast pockets there is usual y one
of each, though some men like to have two
Care must always be taken, of course, to
inside pockets instead of the customary one, make sure that the sleeve linings are cut with
with or without the outside breast pocket. sufficient length to prevent any shortness
The width of the silesia for these pockets is when they are being inserted in the sleeves.
DIA. 68
about 7 ins., and the depth about the same
The cutting of linings for forepart and
unless extra large pockets are desired. The back is il ustrated by the three diagrammatic
inside breast pocket is usual y formed with drawings on Diagram 69.
a narrow piping, and for this purpose it is
The top one depicts the forepart, with the
necessary to supply strips of lining to match inlays showing and with the facings laid on,
the lining used in jacket. These strips may as cut to the correct size and shape. There
be joined to the silesia before the pipings are are additions at 1 (shoulder), 2 (bottom) and
made or, if desired, the pipings may be made 4 (lapel). These al owances are made so that
first and then the silesia joined afterwards. there is ample "play" ; the facings must not
This depends upon the method adopted. The be tight in length; they must have sufficient
tops of the pieces of pocketing are slanted, width to pass over the lapel part. At the actual
as shown by dash line A.
front edge they are cut to the same shape as
Section 3 indicates the linings for the the forepart itself, as shown at 3.
flaps; these are usual y cut from the same
material as that used for the main linings of
The shaded section marked by X indicates
the jacket. There is a margin of lining left at the full shoulder type of facing, referred to
the upper part of the flap lining, for working earlier.
purposes; this is shown beyond the dash-line,
The centre drawing depicts the back, with
the bottom of the drawing representing the its lining indicated by the shaded area. The
top of the flap.
lining is usual y cut so that the centre back
Section 4 indicates a double strip of lining, (C-B) fal s on the fold of the lining material.
DIA. 69
to be used for the pipings, or jetting, for the This is pleated over in the process of make-up,
ticket pocket. This will be inserted towards as will be explained later. Notice the extra
On Diagram 70 we see, in Section A, the
the bottom of the left forepart and the silesia allowance from the waist (W), traversing forepart lining taken away from the facing,
used for it wil be cut in a piece about 41/2" wide the back scye curve (S) and then along the with the underarm dart (U) and the front
by 33/4" deep, on the double. Ticket pockets shoulder and the back neck. About 1" is
should never be made too deep.
allowed at S and the lining is then graded dart (F) marked to be pleated over instead of
down to W; there is normal y 1/2" allowance seamed. This is favoured by some tailoring
Some tailoring houses prefer narrow at-shoulder and back neck. The length of houses. The addition at the shoulder is shown
jettings for all inside pockets. It is a matter of
taste whether pipings or jettings are adopted. the back lining can be 1/2" above the edge of by the extension at 1.
the bottom up-turn.
Cutting Linings
Section B of the same diagram indicates
The bottom illustration portrays the the linings attached to a facing that is going to
The shaded drawings on Diagram 68 forepart lining (shaded area) and shows its
show how the sleeve linings are cut. In
extend across the full width of the shoulder.
relation to the cloth forepart and the facing.
each case, the cloth sleeve parts are shown
U and F again indicate the two darts, to be
In this case I have depicted the facing as cut
by the strong solid outlines and the linings to about one-third of the shoulder width pleated or seamed out. There will be a cut
by slightly lighter lines.
a very common practice among tailors at made at 2 and into this wil be inserted a
About 3/4" margin is allowed on the linings the present time. Notice the allowance of small puff. The process will be described and
at the crown of the top-half, as denoted by lining beyond the bottom edge (6) and at il ustrated at a later stage. This puff may also
C, with a little extra allowed at the top of the shoulder (T). At the side-seam (S-S) be inserted in the lining (at the scye) when
both forearm and hindarm seams, as shown the lining extends as far out as the inlay of the facing is not intended to pass right over
at F and H.
the cloth forepart.
the shoulder.

7
While on the subject of linings and
Sewing the Darts
facings, I will anticipate our make-up
To proceed with our jacket-making, the
progress by mentioning Diagram 71, which next operation will be to sew out the under-
shows two examples of an alternative to arm and front darts--or the sidebody seam,
the scye puff just mentioned.
if this is featured--in each forepart and its
Section A shows how the lining will be companion front dart.
cut for the forming of a pleat at line P. This
Diagram 72--First, we will deal with the
pleat, adopted by many (perhaps most) tailors sewing out of the under-arm dart, as shown
instead of the puff, will be folded out at the on Section A of this diagram. The stitching
scye edge and will be carried to nothing at is shown extending from 1 to 2, the latter
the edge of the facing.
number being placed just above the mark-
Section B shows the pleat idea in another stitches which indicate the cross pocket
DIA. 70
form--this time made to extend in the same mouth. Notice that the seam is gradual y
depth right across the shoulder from scye to tapered as it reaches the bottom position.
facing. When this is done, the pleat must Some tailors prefer to sew the last 2" of this
be formed before the lining is seamed on seam by hand, saying that they can get better
to the facing, its front part thus being held control of it is this way and so avoid "bubbles"
in the seam.
of fullness immediately above and below
In either case allowance must be made the pocket mouth. However, the seam can
at the top of the lining when it is cut; this be sewn quite effectively by machine (as is
allowance, indicated beyond the dash-line on mostly done nowadays) if due care is taken.
both sections, wil be made according to the
Section B shows the seam in closer detail,
depth of pleat required. One inch of depth so that the reader can see exactly how the
is customary, though some tailors prefer a stitching is carried out. A represents the base
smaller pleat--1/2" or 3/4". In certain houses a of the scye, W indicates the waist hollow and
short vertical pleat is made, very much Like B shows the termination of the dart seam.
that in some waistcoat linings.
In some cases the seam is taken down
DIA. 71
Cloth "Gloss"
(about 11/4") below the level of the pocket
Some cloths have a kind of finishing sheen mouth. The idea here is to make absolutely
on them, usual y referred to by tailors as "gloss." sure that there is no "blob" at its end. This
Its presence can be detected by applying the plan is all right when the pockets are to
iron and a damp-cloth (pressing rag) to a part have flaps, but if they are to be jetted only,
of the cloth. It will be noticed, after this is the portion of seam that will show below
done, that where the iron has rested the cloth the bottom jetting may be thought by some
will appear to be very slightly darker and to customers to be unsightly.
have a more mat-like surface. Detection is
The sewing out of the front dart will be done
easier on cloths of comparatively dark shade, in almost exactly the same way, except that
but it can be accomplished on lighter shade there will be two terminations to consider-one
materials as wel . All garment parts in such at the top as well as one at the bottom. This
cloths should be pressed over with an iron means that the grading-off of the seam must
and damp-rag before making of the garment be carried out at both ends. In some cases
begins. This applies to all garments, of course, the upper termination of the front dart will
and not only to jackets. Both sides of the just reach the welt seam of the outside breast
cloth should be so treated.
pocket; this is an advantage in the prevention
Some high-class tailors insist that all of "blobs," of course. However, it is not often
cloths are treated in this way by the tailor that a front dart will extend so far up, so the
before make-up operations, so that there is care and attention already mentioned should
DIA. 72
no danger of small areas of "gloss" appearing be given to the sewing of it--particularly at
in the finished garment.
its terminations.

8

The Sidebody Seam
Diagrams 73 and 74 show the procedure adopted for the
sewing out of the front dart and the underarm seam in a
forepart which has been cut with a sidebody portion (see
on Diagram 60 of this chapter).
Diagram 73: Section 1--Here the forepart is folded over
so that the front dart seam can be sewn. It is shown stitched,
with the gradual tapering mentioned earlier. The balance
mark (indicated by 3 and 4 in this one drawing) will be joined
to corresponding balance marks on the under-seam of the
sidebody. The pocket mouth is indicated by P.
Section 2 portrays the seam pressed open, with the resultant
fullness at top and bottom distributed evenly in the upper and
lower regions.
Section 3 indicates the sidebody seamed on to the main
portion of the forepart. The balance mark are shown, lying
over their companion ones on the other portion of the seam.
Diagram 74--On this diagram, Section 4 gives an impression
of the forepart il ustrated on Diagram 73 as it will be when
both the front dart seam and the sidebody seam have been
completed and pressed open. The pocket mouth edges, it
will be observed, have been drawn together by close stitches.
This will prevent ravelling and will also save the pocket mouth
from danger of being torn while the forepart is being handled.
Section 5 shows the forepart turned over on to its "right"
DIA. 73
side. The finished seams can be seen and the distributed ful ness
above and below the front dart is clearly indicated.
When the seams are being pressed open, it is a good plan
to use the iron to move the cloth forward from the front dart
towards the front edge of the forepart, as denoted by the smal
arrow pointing in the front edge direction. Also, the lower part
of the forepart should be pressed backwards, as indicated by
the second arrow. More will be said about this when I deal
with the canvasing of the jacket.
Work with the Iron
At this stage certain things are to be done with the iron--
with the aid of water. Shoulders are to be stretched; other
parts have to be shrunk. The usual method of applying water
is by means of what used to be called a "damp-dol y." This is
simply a piece of cloth rolled up into a kind of miniature Swiss
Rol , tied round its middle with string or thread, one end of
the "dol y" is dipped in a bucket of water, until it is pretty well
soaked, then it is dabbed across the parts of the garment that
are to be "manipulated." The dabbing is nearly always carried
out in a kind of paint-brush movement and the amount of
damp imparted to the parts is fairly considerable, for there
must be no danger of scorching the cloth.
Let us assume that we have applied the "damp-dol y" to a
DIA. 74
forepart and that we are now applying the iron.

9
Diagram 75--In the upper drawing here we have the forepart,
with the iron indicated in different positions during work on it.
A reasonable stretching is given to the scye part of the shoulder
and to the gorge, as shown; below the cross pocket level the iron
should be moved towards the centre of the forepart. This will make
some provision at the hip region and wil also prevent the cloth from
tending to "flute" too much below the pocket level. The effect of
taking out the front dart is shown on this diagram and will serve to
emphasise the importance of the "forward" movement of the iron
mentioned earlier.
The Stretching
The small Section A gives an impression of the shoulder portion
of the forepart after the iron manipulation just described. The effect
here has been exaggerated in order to make the operation clear.
Actual y, the amount of stretching given to shoulders now is quite
moderate, for the present day cut and styling of jackets does not cal
for a great deal of forceful stretching. In earlier days, stretching was
carried out with tremendous zest sometimes to the detriment of the
finished garment. But moderation is always the keynote of today's
iron activities on jacket shoulders.
A note on the forepart, in relation to letters S and T. There are
DIA. 75
some very high-class tailoring houses who do not like the stretching of
the scye curve to extend too far outwards. The inlay will be stretched
reasonably (as shown at T) but the part of the scye curve just inside
the mark-stitches will be left unstretched. In fact, a piece of linen or
tape, is put there to prevent stretching. The part which is stretched
a little is that indicated by the dash-line at S.
The idea is that this is the part where there is a prominence on most
male figures--a kind of "bump" where muscle and bone protrude
somewhat. It is true that there are some figures with that peculiarity,
but not al . For the purpose of this explanation of jacket-making.
Therefore, we will resort to the most general y adopted methods of
dealing with the shoulder areas of the forepart.
The lower drawing on Diagram 75 shows the forepart turned
over on its "right" side, after the main part of the iron work has
been carried out. It will be seen that the stretching of the shoulder
and gorge has produced the extra length at A and B. The scye curve
(C) has not been stretched to any extent at all in this instance--a
plan favoured by many tailors when they are making up jackets for
normal figures. There is the "fluting" of the side-seam at D, which
will be controlled during later operations. Notice the fullness that
has been "thrown" into the hip area (E), where it is wanted, and the
comparatively straight run of the front from the lapel end (F) to the
DIA. 76
bottom (G). The required "forward" movement has been achieved
at W and the backward movement at S (see arrow in each case).
The half-back is folded over, the fold being made from about 1" in
On the Back
from the side neck-point, so that it will be passing over what will be
The back can also receive some manipulation by the iron. the shoulder-blade position on the figure of the wearer. A stretching
What is often done by good tailors is indicated on Diagram 76.
is made here, with a corresponding shrinking at the waist and the
back scye. The resultant shaping is shown on the bottom drawing.
The top drawing shows the back as cut out; it is to be taken that
the two thicknesses are laid together. (Mark-stitches and inlays have
One more thing might be done on the back--it is done by many
not been included on this il ustration). Now the two halfbacks will tailors. A piece of tape put along the back neck (or a strip of linen)
be taken apart and each will be treated in the manner indicated on so that this part does not get stretched or distorted during the
the centre drawing.
makeup processes.

10

Insertion of Pockets
We will assume that all the preliminary iron work has been
done and that the back and forepart are ready for the next stage
in make-up. This will concern the forepart and the insertion of
pockets in it.
Diagram 77--On this diagram are three foreparts, each showing
individual features. The idea behind this plan is the conveying of
different details to the reader, so that he will have a more complete
picture of the procedure adopted in the making of a lounge jacket.
Section 1 shows the left forepart of a button-three jacket, with the
dart seams pressed open. A strip of linen (1) is now placed in position
at what will be the back of the cross pocket mouth. From the position
of the rear tack a narrower piece of linen is shown running diagonal y
into the side-seam (see 2). These pieces of linen are placed here to
give strength to the pocket. The horizontal piece to give firmness
to the mouth and to take the front tack; the diagonal piece to take
the rear tack. 1 will be about 11/2" or 2" wide and 2 will be about 3/4"
wide. Notice that both are taken into the side-seam. The position
of the outside breast pocket mouth is denoted by mark-stitches.
Section 2--Here we have the forepart of a button-two style lounge.
The horizontal linen is shown by 1 and instead of the diagonal piece
there is a narrow strip of linen extending from the rear pocket tack
position right up into the scye, as shown by A. This is a stay method
sometimes used by tailors who prefer to have the strain on the pocket
taken vertical y instead of diagonal y. There is no outside breast
pocket indicated in this case.
Section 3--This drawing has a number of interesting features.
First, the usual horizontal linen (1) is seen at the back of the pocket
mouth, with the diagonal piece accompanying it. There is also a strip
of linen going up from the pocket mouth into the scye, the is time
covering the seam of the underarm dart (see 2 and 2X). Actual y,
this linen will conceal the seam; it is shown in the drawing in a way
that will make the process clear to readers.
DIA. 77
It will be seen, too, that the outside breast pocket mouth in this
Now let us devote our attention to the putting-in of pockets,
forepart has had a piece of linen placed at its back.
first taking the cross pocket, which in this example is to be fitted
The scye "controlling" linen has been placed at 3; this has been with a flap. Reference should be made to Diagram 78.
mentioned earlier as a feature in the make-up methods adopted by
some tailoring houses of repute.
We will take it that the flaps have been cut, shaped and lined in the
manner described earlier. The lining will be the same as that used
The lapels of this forepart are designed in such a way a will make for the back and forepart--unless melton is used, as sometimes the
them adaptable to either the button-three or the button-two style of case, though not so frequently for jacket flaps as for overcoat ones.
garment. Mark-stitches are inserted in what would be the button-
three style (A) and also for the button-two style. (B). The plan here
The next thing to deal with is the pocket jetting, described and
is that the col ar will be put on in such a way as to "pul " down to the il ustrated earlier in this chapter. A piece of pocketing, as correctly
lower buttoning position (button-two) and also to allow the lapel cut (usual y silesia), will now be attached to the jetting. This piece
to roll to the button-three position so that the top button and what will form half of the pocket.
will be the centre button may be fastened.
There are various ways of sewing in the flaps. Some tailors attach
This is a kind of composite style of front that is being worn at the both flap and jetting at the same time; others sew the jetting on first
time in which this book is under preparation. Details of it are included and insert the flap after the jetting has been stitched across on the
to give the reader an idea of some of the various style features that outside. Both methods can produce satisfactory results; for the
can be introduced in the so-called standard lounge jacket.
present purpose we will deal with flap and jetting separately.

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