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The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return

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The objective of this study is to examine the value relevance of accounting information in explaining stock return. The study uses profitability, liquidity, leverage, market ratio, size and cash flow as proxies of accounting information. Cumulative abnormal return and market adjusted return are used as stock return variables. The samples of the study are listed companies in manufacturing industries that actively trading between 2003-2006 in Indonesia Stock Market. The study finds that profitability, turnover and market ratio has significant impact to the stock return. The result consistent with previous studies Hobart (2006), Utama and Santoso (1998) and Restraningsih (2007).
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Jun. 2009, Volume 8, o.6 (Serial o.72) Chinese Business Review, ISS 1537-1506, USA

The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating
activities in the interim report to the stock return
Dwi Martani, Mulyono, Rahfiani Khairurizka
(Accounting Department, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia)
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the value relevance of accounting information in
explaining stock return. The study uses profitability, liquidity, leverage, market ratio, size and cash flow as proxies
of accounting information. Cumulative abnormal return and market adjusted return are used as stock return
variables. The samples of the study are listed companies in manufacturing industries that actively trading between
2003-2006 in Indonesia Stock Market. The study finds that profitability, turnover and market ratio has significant
impact to the stock return. The result consistent with previous studies Hobart (2006), Utama and Santoso (1998)
and Restraningsih (2007).
Key words: financial ratio; stock return; Indonesia Stock Market
1. Introduction
Accounting information from financial reports can describe firm’s condition. The financial reports are
affected by two factors, firms’ activities and accounting system adopted by the firms (Palepu, Healy & Bernard,
2004). There are many researches in value of financial reports information (both annual and interim reports).
Some researches study accounting information in predicting firms’ future financial performance, such as earnings
and growth (Lev Trigrajan, 1993), while other researches measure the effect of accounting information on share
price (Abarbanell & Bushee, 1998).
This research reinvestigates the relationship between financial reports information and return on share by
using five categories of commonly used financial ratios (Ross, Westerfield & Jordan, 2006) including profitability,
long term solvency/leverage, short term solvency/liquidity, asset utilization/turnover, and market value. In
addition, it uses two additional variables from previous research; Size which is derived from firm’s total assets
(Johnson & Soenen, 2003; Hobarth, 2006), and cashflow from operation (Daniati & Suhairi, 2006; Susanto &
Ekawati, 2006; Meythi, 2006).
The reminder of this paper is organized as follows. The next section contains literature review and followed
by methodology. The third section discusses research result. Conclusions and suggestions for future research are
discussed in the final section.
2. Previous studies

Dwi Martani, lecturer, Ph.D., Accounting Department, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia; research fields: financial
accounting, public sector accounting, governance, taxation.
Mulyono, graduate student, Accounting Department, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia; research field: financial
accounting.
Rahfiani Khairurizka, lecturer, Master, Accounting Department, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia; research fields:
financial accounting, information system.
44

The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
Financial ratio analysis can help investors in making investment decision and predicting firm’s future
performance. It can also give early warning about the slowdown of firm’s financial condition (Ohlson, 1980).
Research in finance shows that firm’s characteristics (such as growth, company size, efficiency) can predict
the future stock price. Johnson and Soenen (2003) analyzed 478 firms in USA during 1982-1998 and concluded
that big sized and profitable firms with high level advertising expenditure have better performance in terms of
those three measurements.

Hobarth (2006) studied the correlation between financial indicators and firm’s performance of listed firms in
USA for 19 years period by using 17 financial indicators and three variables to measure firm’s performance,
namely market performance (
stock market value), cash flow performance (dividend per share), and
profitability (ROI). The result shows that firms with low book to market ratio, efficient working capital
management, low liquidity, more equity and less liabilities, and high retained earnings have high profitability
based on ROI. Firms with unqualified opinion from auditor, more liabilities and less equity, low total assets and
retained earnings have better cash flow performance (measured by cash dividend). Furthermore, firms with low
book to market ratio, efficient working capital management, more equity and less liabilities, low total assets, and
high EBIT margin have better market performance (measured by changes in stock price).

Research about accounting information for predicting return on shares is also conducted in Indonesia. Daniati
and Suhairi (2006) showed that cash flow from investing activities, gross profit, and company size significantly
affect expected return on shares. On the other hand, cash flow from operating activities does not affect expected
return significantly. Meythi (2006) researched 100 manufacturing firms in BEJ during 1999-2002 and concluded
that, with profit persistence as intervening variable, cash flow from operating activities does not affect stock price.
In USA, Lev and Thiagarajan (1993) performed a research on correlation between 12 fundamental variables
and firm’s abnormal return for period 1974-1988, by using changes in inventory, accounts receivable, capital
expenditure, R & D, gross margin, sales & administrative expense, provision for doubtful receivable, effective tax,
order backlog, labor force, LIFO earnings, and audit qualification as independent variables. The result showed that
changes in inventory, receivable, capital expenditure, gross margin, sales & administrative expense, and order
backlog significantly affect return, with α=5%. They also observed that the correlation between return and
fundamental variables will be stronger when considering macroeconomics variables such as inflation rate and
GNP growth.

The research is continued by Abarbanell and Bushee (1998). They observed whether the application of
fundamental analysis can result in abnormal return using data from 9,764 companies during 1974-1988.
Fundamental analysis in this research was performed by observing changes in inventory, accounts receivable,
gross margins, selling expenses, capital expenditures, effective tax rates, inventory methods, audit qualifications,
and labor force sales productivity. The result shows that changes in inventory, gross margin, and selling and
administrative expenses provide information about firm’s future return which is associated with earnings
announcement in the future. Among all variables in this research, changes in inventory, capital expenditure,
effective tax rates are strong indicators in predicting firm’s future earnings. Most of the abnormal returns happen
during the period before and after earnings announcement.

Different results came from research performed by Warfrield and Wild (1992) which showed empirical
evidence of negative correlation between explanatory power of firm’s earnings and the length of reporting period.
Using quarterly report from 24,150 firms during period 1983-1986 as samples, they concluded that the
explanatory power of earnings in explaining return in a quarterly report was only 25% of semiannual report, and

45

The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
less than 10% of annual report. Adjusted-R2 in quarterly earnings is less than 1%, but more than 39% in 4-years
earnings.

Based on a study by Lev, Thiagarajan (1993), Anggraini, Setiawati and Desembriarto (2004) tried to learn the
effect of fundamental variables on abnormal return during crisis and non-crisis period. The research period is
1995-2002, where 1998 is considered as crisis period. This paper uses seven fundamental variables: inventory,
accounts receivable, gross profit, marketing and administrative expense, allowance for doubtful account relative to
sales, effective tax rate, and audit qualifications. During crisis period, only gross profit affects abnormal return
significantly, while in non-crisis period inventory, financial reports, and audit qualifications have significant
influence on abnormal return. The important thing is the low adjusted-R2 which is only 0.5% (for crisis period)
and 0.8% (for non-crisis period). This indicates the low ability of fundamental signals to explain the return
variability in capital market.

Manao and Nur (2001) observed the relation between financial ratio and stock returns during economic crisis
in Indonesia by adding firm size as variable. Using 120 manufacturing companies listed on BEJ 2004 as sample,
this study used eight financial ratios (QR, TATO, CLTA, LDTA, GPM, ROE, PBV, and EPS). Those companies
were divided into three size categories (small, medium and big) based on total assets. The result shows that PBV
and EPS have significant influence on all models.

Sparta and Februwaty (2005) studied the affect of ROE, EPS, and CFO on stock return of manufacturing
industry in BEJ using data of 32 manufacturing companies during 1999-2002. The result shows that only ROE
that significantly influences stock return (α=5%) while EPS and CFO have insignificant negative effect on stock
return.

Mais (2005) performed research on effect of financial ratios, including NPM, ROA, ROE, DER, and EPS, on
stock price of companies listed on Jakarta Islamic Index in 2004. The outcome of this research explains that
statistically all variables except DER are significant and have positive impact on stock price.

Kennedy (2005) analyzed the effect of ROA, ROE, EPS, Profit Margin, Assets Turnover, DTA, and DER on
stock return using samples of stocks from LQ 45 index in BEJ during period 2001-2002. This research finds out
that TATO, ROA, EPS, and DER have positive effect, while ROE and DTA have negative effect, on stock return.
However, all variables are statistically insignificant in influencing stock return.

Roswati (2007) studied the effect of CR, TATO, DER, ROE, EPS, and PBV on stock price of manufacturing
industry with five sub-industries including retail, food and beverages, tobacco, automotive, and pharmacy. The
result shows that the significant financial ratios in retail industry are ROE, EPS, and PBV; In food and beverages
industry are EPS and PBV; In tobacco industry are CR, TATO, DER, EPS, and PBV; In automotive industry are
DER, ROE, EPS, and PBV; while in pharmacy industry are CR, EPS, and PBV. In overall five industries, the
influential financial ratios are TATO, DER<EPS, and PBV. Furthermore, this research shows that the variety of
average stock prices can still be explained properly by financial ratios during 1-3 month period after the issuance
of annual financial report.

Hamzah (2007) analyzed the correlation between financial ratios, including liquidity ratio (Current ratio),
profitability ratio (Return on Investment), activity ratio (Total Assets Turnover), and solvability ratio (Debt to
equity), and both capital gain (loss) and dividend in 135 manufacturing companies listed on Jakarta Stock
Exchange.
This research discovers that all ratios have positive correlation with capital gain (loss). However, only
Current ratio which is statistically significant (α=5%). Furthermore, for correlation with dividend yield, only Total
46


The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
assets turnover that is proved significant (α=10%).

A research on PBV ratio was conducted by Utama and Sentosa (1998) on 128 companies listed on Jakarta
Stock Exchange in 1995. This research proves that PBV ratio can be used in setting investment strategy because
by using PBV ratio, investor can predict which stocks will be undervalued and overvalued so they can gain
significant return. Moreover, this research also discussed fundamental factors that affect PBV which are
comprised of ROE, growth prospect, risk level, and dividend policy. The result confirmed that only ROE which
has positive correlation with PBV consistently and significantly.

Some researchers have been studied about the effect of cash flow information. Manurung (1998) analyzed
the effect of cash flow on stock return by using data from 40 firms listed on Jakarta Stock Exchange in the year
1994 and 1995. It was concluded that the correlation between cash flow, from operating, investing and financing
activities, and stock return is weak, but becoming stronger each year. The correlation with cash flow from
operating activities is positive but statistically insignificant for both 1994 and 1995 period. Moreover, the
correlation with cash flow from investing and financing activities is positive in 1994 and negative in 1995, and
also statistically insignificant for both years.

Another research on cash flow was conducted by Daniati and Suhairi (2006) with automotive and textile
companies listed on Jakarta Stock Exchange in 1999-2004 as samples. They analyzed whether the cash flow
information (operating, investing, and financing), gross profit, and company size affect firm’s stock return
significantly. The result proves that cash flow from investing activities, gross profit, and company size
significantly correlate with stock return, while cash flow from operating activities does not affect the return
significantly. (see Appendix 1)
3. Methodology
The diversity of research results on the correlation between stock return and financial ratios stimulates
further research. This paper will discuss that correlation using the data from Jakarta Stock Exchange. The
hypothesis that will be used is:
H1: Net profit margin, return on equity, current ratio, debt to equity, total asset turnover, price to book value,
cash flow from operating activities, and company size, each of them has significant correlation with market
adjusted return dan abnormal return.
The regression model tested in this research and the description for each variable are as follow (Table 1):
3.1 1a–1e model
RET = β0 + β1 NPM + β2 ROE + β3 CR + β4 DER + β5 TATO + β6 PBV + β7 CFO/Sales + β8 LogTA (1)
The dependent variables consist of two return variables, cumulative market adjusted return andcumulative
abnormal return.
(1) Market adjusted return, that is the stock return deducted by market return (composite stock price index)
n
Cumulative market adjusted returni = Ri Rm
t = 0
(R R
) + D
IHSG IHSG
Where:
t
t 1

Ri =
t ,
t
t 1

Rm =
(2)
Comment [微软用户
1]: This formula
R
IHSG
t 1

t 1

in your revision is not as same as the
(2) Abnormal return, that is the stock return deducted by expected return of the stock.
formula in your original paper.

47

The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
n
Cumulative abnormal returni = Ri E(Ri) (3)
t=0
The expected return is derived from market model where E(Ri) = αi + βi Rm.

Table 1 Variables description
Category
Symbol
Description
Hypothesis
Return
MKTADJRET
Cumulative market adjusted return
Dependent
Return
ABNRET
Cumulative abnormal return
Dependent
Profitability
NPM
Net profit margin
+
Profitability
ROE
Return on equity
+
Liquidty
CR
Current ratio
+
Leverage
DER
Debt to equity ratio
+
Turnover
TATO
Total asset turnover
+
Market ratio
PBV
Price to book value
+
Size
TA
Total asset
+
Cashflow
CFO/Sales
Cashflow from operation/Sales
+
Notes: RET = uses two measurements: Cumulative market adjusted return and Cumulative abnormal return; NPM = Net profit
margin; ROE = Return on equity; CR = Current ratio; DER = Debt to equity ratio; TATO = Total asset turnover; PBV = Price to book
value; CFO/Sales = Cashflow from operation/Sales; Log TA = Log (Total assets).

3.2 Research sample
This research used secondary data from financial statements (both interim and annual report), including
income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement, issued by manufacturing companies listed on stock
exchange. The data is obtained from Indonesian Capital Market DirectoryJSX Statistics, and Real Time Investor1.
This research also used weekly stock price from each firm and composite stock price index derived from
Real Time Investor and Yahoo Finance. Moreover, other sources such as text book, newspapers, and journals are
also utilized to review the theoretical framework from previous researches.

The sample in this research is manufacturing firms listed on BEI which are selected by purposive sampling.
In choosing the sample, there were pre-determined criteria as follow:
(1) The firm has published its complete financial statements for 5 year period from 2002 to 2006.
(2) The firm’s fiscal year-end is December.
(3) The firm does not have negative equity.
(4) The firm’s stock has been actively traded during 2001-2006. It is determined by reviewing stock trading
day every month. Transaction must take place at least in one day every month during 2001-2006.
The purposive sampling with the predetermined criteria above resulted in 39 firms as sample. The actively
traded criterion was set to limit the sample from manufacturing companies with small stock price movement.
Moreover, it was also set to concentrate the distribution of stock data so the parameter generated will be relatively
efficient and has smaller variants (Daniati & Suhairi, 2006).

The stock data used in this research is weekly stock data adjusted with stock split and dividend. The weekly
data is an ideal alternative because it can generate a large number of observations as well as minimize the bias

1 Real Time Investor provides real time financial data. PT RTI Infokom was selected by BEI to distribute data on real time basis to
all BEI members. The data can be accessed on www.rti.co.id.
48


The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
from daily data (Lo & MacKinlay, 1988).

After choosing dependent and independent variables, the next step is processing the data to get the
appropriate model. To answer the problem in this study, statistical analysis is applied through multiple linear
regression by using all independent variables to affect dependent variables in all quarterly data. For sensitivity
analysis, regression analysis on all data model for each quarter will be performed.
4. Results

Descriptive statistics of each variable in this research is shown in Table 2. It can be seen from descriptive
statistics that abnormal and market adjusted return of the firms were fluctuated from one quarter to another. The
cumulative return in the fourth quarter is not always higher than the return in the next quarter.

Table 2 Descriptive statistics
2002-2006
2002-2006
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
All quarters
Variable
Std.
Std.
Std.
Mean
Mean
Mean
Mean
Std. Dev.
Mean
Std. Dev.
Dev.
Dev.
Dev.
NPM
0.088
0.095
0.083
0.090
0.080
0.078
0.067
0.083
0.080
0.087
ROE
0.050
0.060
0.093
0.113
0.133
0.132
0.120
0.370
0.099
0.208
CR
2.370
1.475
2.197
1.331
2.299
1.520
2.370
1.652
2.309
1.498
DER
1.365
1.241
1.402
1.197
1.343
1.150
1.343
1.151
1.363
1.183
TATO
0.290
0.143
0.573
0.276
0.865
0.408
1.173
0.578
0.725
0.507
PBV
1.698
1.933
1.840
2.254
1.697
1.999
1.905
2.527
1.785
2.188
CFO/SALES
0.079
0.164
0.095
0.148
0.099
0.136
0.108
0.121
0.095
0.143
LOG (TA)
9.219
0.675
9.233
0.680
9.241
0.685
9.243
0.689
9.234
0.681
MKTADJRET
0.015
0.178
0.019
0.258
0.002
0.307
-0.038
0.354
-0.001
0.282
ABNRET
0.024
0.181
0.032
0.268
0.020
0.329
-0.008
0.388
0.017
0.301
N
195
195
195
195
780


Before running the regression, a test was performed on the classic assumption of these models. All models
met the classic assumption and necessary treatments were given in the case of assumption violation.

The result of multiple regression is shown in Table 3. Both market adjusted return model and abnormal return
model have significant F statistic with F-Stats probability 0.000. This result suggests that with significance level
of 95%, the simultaneously tested independent variables have significant effect on dependent variable (market
adjusted return). The value of R2 is 38.38% for market adjusted return and 37.94% for abnormal return which
suggests that both dependent variables have consistent result. The R2 value shows that the level of stock return is
not affected by independent variables tested in this research, but it is influenced more by other factors.

The result of regression on market adjusted return suggests that NPM, ROE, DER, and PBV have positive
effect. In contrast, CR, TATO, Log (TA), and CFO/Sales have negative correlation, which is not align to the
hypothesis. Moreover, the result of regression on cumulative abnormal return shows that all variables, except
TATO and Log (TA), have negative correlation.
As evidenced by Table 3, NPM (Net profit margin) has significant positive influence on market return, which
supports the result of research performed by Mais (2005). This indicates that the higher the firm’s NPM, the
higher market adjusted return and abnormal return that can be resulted by firm’s stock, because a higher NPM

49

The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
means higher profit obtained from every dollar revenue earned by the firm.
Table 3 The result of regression for market adjusted return and abnormal return with financial ratios
Market adjusted return
ABNRET
Variable
Coef.
Prob.
Coef.
Prob.
C
0.30595
0.26970
0.74082
0.01030*
NPM?
0.48739
0.00380*
0.43207
0.02140*
ROE?
0.14062
0.06190**
0.13709
0.03360*
CR?
-0.00260
0.75620
0.01121
0.22380
DER?
0.02106
0.16430
0.00797
0.61330
TATO?
-0.05870
0.00570*
-0.04371
0.05170**
PBV?
0.03920
0.00010*
0.04438
0.00000*
LOGTA?
-0.04434
0.14730
-0.09291
0.00350*
CFOSALES?
-0.00412
0.96010
0.01513
0.85630
N
780
780
R-squared
0.39101
0.38661
Adjusted R2
0.38389
0.37943
F-statistic
54.86170
53.85314
Prob(F-statistic)
0.00000*
0.00000*
Notes: * significant 5%; ** significant 10%; MKTADJRET = Ri – Rm; ABNRET = Ri – E(Ri); NPM = NI/Sales; ROE =
NI/Total equity; CR = Current asset - Current liability; DER = Total debt/Total equity; TATO = Sales/Total asset; PBV = Stock
price/Book value equity.


Another variable, ROE (Return on equity), has significant positive correlation with return. A higher ROE
shows that the firm can earn higher return on shareholder’s equity. A higher ROE also indicates a higher efficiency
in spending money invested by shareholder to earn profit growth. Therefore, it can be concluded that investor will
pay attention on NPM and ROE. Purnomo (1997), Mais (2005), and Sparta and Februaty (2005) also argue that
ROE has positive correlation with stock price.

Investors/shareholders consider current earnings, future earnings, and earnings stability are important, thus
they focus their analysis on firm’s profitability. They concern about financial condition which will affect firm’s
ability to pay dividend and avoid bankruptcy (Horne, 2002).

Liquidity ratio in both market adjusted return and abnormal return has insignificant effect on stock return.
Even in market adjusted return model it has negative correlation.

The debt to equity ratio (DER) has positive correlation with stock return but not statistically significant. This
positive correlation supports the research result by Purnomo (1998), Kennedy (2003), and Hamzah (2007). DER
represents firm’s capital structure. A high DER suggests that the firm uses debt financing aggressively. The fund
can be used to support long term growth for the firm so it can earn profit. This suggests that the firm’s debt level
has not yet reached the level of financial distress.

Another variable, total assets turnover (TATO), has negative correlation with return. This contrasts the theory
which states that TATO should have positive impact on market adjusted return and abnormal return. It is also
contrast with the result of research performed by Kennedy (2003) and Roswati (2007). TATO reflects efficiency in
assets management to earn revenue from operating activities, thus a higher TATO is a benefit for the firm and can
give positive effect on stock return. The result of negative correlation of TATO on return might be caused by big
50


The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
firms’ domination on high stock return, whereas big firms usually cannot increase their TATO easily. Another
factor that caused negative correlation is that stock return is also affected by non operating profit which is not
gained from sales.
The market ratio reflected by PBV (price to book value) also has positive impact on return, which supports
Manao and Nur (2001). A low PBV can be an outcome of fundamental problem within the firm.
However, it does not agree with the research result from Fama & French (1992), and Utama & Santosa (1998)
which proves that PBV has negative effect on stock return. This negative correlation can be rationalized by the
value of PBV itself, that a very high PBV can cause overvalue on stock and thus the price will tend to decrease to
reach the intrinsic value. Therefore, the stock return is low.
The company size which is indicated by total assets also correlates positively with return. This supports the
study from Johnson and Soenen (2003). This correlation can be explained by some factors such as risk
diversification, dominant market position, and a better access to capital market.
The last variable, CFO/Sales, has positive but insignificant correlation with both independent variables. A
higher cash flow from operating activities will give positive impact on market adjusted return and abnormal return.
This positive correlation is also concluded by Manurung (1998).
The sensitivity analysis with quarterly data did not provide a good result. This may be caused by the
minimum amount of data. Even the result of regression on first quarter generated insignificant F statistic which
means the model cannot be used for prediction. There are fewer independent variables with significant effect on
stock return; only about one or two variables, and the results were not consistent between one model and the
others. The second quarter model has the highest R2, that is 13.48% and 10.45% (see Appendix 2 and Appendix 3),
compared to the other models, even with fourth quarter and annual data.
5. Conclusion and limitation
Based on regression result, it can be concluded that financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating
activities altogether affect market adjusted return and abnormal return. The return variability is best explained by
second quarter report.
The variables which are consistently significant on adjusted return and abnormal return are profitability ratios
(NPM and ROE), TATO, and market value ratio (PBV). It shows that from investors’ point of view financial ratios
are useful in making decision on investment.
This research also exposes that the movement of stock price is affected much by factors other than firm’s
financial performance. From all models used in this research, the highest R2 is only 39.1%. It suggests that there is
other information other than internal fundamental factors that also affect the movement of firm’s stock price. In
certain periods, the changes in stock price do not reflect the firm’s financial performance. Macro economic
condition, political situation, government industrial policy, and technical aspects within firms are factors other
than financial performance that can affect the changes in stock price (Purnomo, 1998). Hadi and Azmi (2005) also
argued that other factors such as interest rate, inflation rate, and exchange rate can influence changes in stock
return significantly.
Considering the limitation in numbers of firms and observed period, it is suggested to increase the sample in
both number of firms and observation period for the next research. To reduce the variability of dependent variable
(stock return), researchers can classify the firms based on certain criteria, such as company size (total assets or

51

The effect of financial ratios, firm size, and cash flow from operating activities in the interim report to the stock return
market capitalization) or risk level (for example firm’s leverage). Furthermore, other macro level variables which
can influence stock return such as interest rate, economic growth (GDP), and inflation can be used to expand the
next research.

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(Edited by Annie and Chris)

Appendix 1 Previous researches
Independen
Research
Dependent variables
Significant variables
t variables
Total
liabilities/Net
worth,
income for common stock to net
O’Connor
Stock
worth, cash flows to number of
33 financial ratios
(1973)
returns
common
stocks,
current
liabilities
to
inventory
dan
earnings per share to stock price
Changes
in
inventory,
Changes in inventory, accounts receivable, capital expenditure,
Lev,
receivable, capital expenditure,
Abnormal
R&D, gross margin, sales & administrative expense, provision
Thiagarajan
gross
margin,
sales
&
stock return
for doubtful receivable, effective tax, order backlog, labor force,
(1993)
administrative expense, order
LIFO earnings, audit qualification.
backlog
Changes in inventory, accounts receivable, gross margins,
Abarbanel,
Abnormal
selling expenses, capital expenditures, effective tax rates,
Changes in inventory, gross
Bushee
stock return
inventory methods, audit qualifications, and labor force sales
margin, selling expenses
(1998)
productivity
Book to market ratio, size, sustainable growth rate, return on
Low book to market ratio,
Stocks
asset, capital structure, cash conversion cycle, research and
efficient
working
capital
Hobarth
return
development expenditure, advertising expenditure, capital
management, higher equity, low
(2006)
(Market
expenditure, auditor’s opinion, p-ratio, quick ratio, sales
stock rating, low level of assets,
value)
percentage change, EBIT margin, long term credit rating, short
high
EBIT
margin,
high
term credit rating, common stock rating)
profitability
Independen
Research
Dependent variables
Significant variables
t Variables
Anggraini,
Abnormal
Inventory, accounts receivable, gross profit, marketing and
During crisis period: gross profit
Setiawati,
Stock
administrative expense, allowance for bad debt/sales, effective
During
non-crisis
period:

53

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