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Life is mostly composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Although these six elements make up nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids and thus the bulk of living ...
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of
electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
For example, ...
In chemistry and atomic physics, main group elements are elements in groups (periodic
columns) whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron,
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, ...
The Periodic Table
The periodic table is made up of rows of elements and columns.
An element is identified by its chemical symbol.
The number above the symbol is the atomic number
The number below the symbol is the rounded atomic weight of the element.
A row is called a period
A column is called a group
Organizing the Elements
Chemists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.
JW. Dobreiner grouped elements into triads.
A triad is a set of three elements with similar properties.
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
In 1869, a Russian chemist and teacher published a table of the elements.
Mendeleev arranged the elements in the periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass.
Henry Moseley 1887 - 1915 In 1913, through his work with X-rays, he determined the actual nuclear charge (atomic number) of the elements*. He rearranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number. *“There is in the atom a fundamental quantity which increases by regular steps as we pass from each element to the next. This quantity can only be the charge on the central positive nucleus.”
The Periodic Law
In the modern periodic table elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
Periodic Law states: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
The elements can be grouped into three broad classes based on their general properties.
Three classes of elements are Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids.
Across a period, the properties of elements become less metallic and more nonmetallic.
Properties of Metals
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Metals are shiny.
Metals are ductile (can be stretched into thin wires).
Metals are malleable (can be pounded into thin sheets).
A chemical property of metal is its reaction with water which results in corrosion.
Solid at room temperature except Hg.
Properties of Non-Metals
Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Non-metals are not ductile or malleable.
Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily.
They are dull.
Many non-metals are gases.
Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals.
They are solids that can be shiny or dull.
They conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as well as metals.
They are ductile and malleable.
Columns of elements are called groups or families.
Elements in each group have similar but not identical properties.
For example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and other members of group IA are all soft, white, shiny metals.
All elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons.
Each horizontal row of elements is called a period.
The elements in a period are not alike in properties.
In fact, the properties change greatly across even given row.
The first element in a period is always an extremely active solid. The last element in a period, is always an inactive gas.
The hydrogen square sits atop group AI, but it is not a member of that group. Hydrogen is in a class of its own.
It’s a gas at room temperature.
It has one proton and one electron in its one and only energy level.
Hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to fill up its valence shell.
6.2 Classifying the Elements
The periodic table displays the symbols and names of the elements along with information about the structure of their atoms.
Four chemical groups of the periodic table:
alkali metals (IA)
alkaline earth metals (IIA),
Noble gases (VIIIA).
The alkali family is found in the first column of the periodic table.
Atoms of the alkali metals have a single electron in their outermost level, in other words, 1 valence electron.
They are shiny, have the consistency of clay, and are easily cut with a knife.
They are the most reactive metals.
They react violently with water.
Alkali metals are never found as free elements in nature. They are always bonded with another element.
Alkaline Earth Metals
They are never found uncombined in nature.
They have two valence electrons.
Alkaline earth metals include magnesium and calcium, among others.
Transition Elements include those elements in the B groups.
These are the metals you are probably most familiar: copper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silver.
They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
The compounds of transition metals are usually brightly colored and are often used to color paints.
Transition elements have 1 or 2 valence electrons, which they lose when they form bonds with other atoms. Some transition elements can lose electrons in their next-to-outermost level.
Transition elements have properties similar to one another and to other metals, but their properties do not fit in with those of any other group.
Many transition metals combine chemically with oxygen to form compounds called oxides.
Groups 1A – 7A.
Elements are refered to as representative elements because they display a wide range of physical and chemical properties.
For any representative element, its group number equals the number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level.
Trends in the periodic table: Ionization Energy Atomic Radius Electron Affinity Electronegativity
Sizes of Atoms
The bonding atomic radius is defined as one-half of the distance between covalently bonded nuclei.
Atomic Radius Trend
Group Trend – As you go down a column , atomic radius increases.
As you go down, e - are filled into orbitals that are farther away from the nucleus (attraction not as strong).
Periodic Trend – As you go across a period (L to R), atomic radius decreases.
As you go L to R, e - are put into the same orbital, but more p + and e - total (more attraction = smaller size).
Ionic Radius Trend
Metals – lose e - , which means more p + than e - (more attraction) SO…
Ionic Radius < Neutral Atomic Radius
Nonmetals – gain e - , which means more e - than p + (not as much attraction) SO…
Ionic Radius > Neutral Atomic Radius
Sizes of Ions
Ionic size depends upon:
Number of electrons.
Orbitals in which electrons reside.
Sizes of Ions
Cations are smaller than their parent atoms.
The outermost electron is removed and repulsions are reduced.
Sizes of Ions
Anions are larger than their parent atoms.
Electrons are added and repulsions are increased.
Sizes of Ions
Ions increase in size as you go down a column.
Due to increasing value of n .
Metals versus Nonmetals
Metals tend to form cations.
Nonmetals tend to form anions.
Electrons can jump between shells (Bohr’s model supported by line spectra)
The electrons can be pushed so far that they escape the attraction of the nucleus
Losing an electron is called ionization
An ion is an atom that has either a net positive or net negative charge
Q: what would the charge be on an atom that lost an electron? Gained two electrons?
A: +1 (because your losing a -ve electron)
A: -2 (because you gain 2 -ve electrons)
Amount of energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion.
First ionization energy is that energy required to remove first electron.
Second ionization energy is that energy required to remove second electron, etc.
Group Trend – As you go down a column , ionization energy decreases.
As you go down, atomic size is increasing (less attraction), so easier to remove an e - .
Periodic Trend – As you go across a period (L to R), ionization energy increases.
As you go L to R, atomic size is decreasing (more attraction), so more difficult to remove an e -
(also, metals want to lose e - , but nonmetals do not).
It requires more energy to remove each successive electron.
When all valence electrons have been removed, the ionization energy takes a quantum leap.
Trends in First Ionization Energies
As one goes down a column, less energy is required to remove the first electron.
For atoms in the same group, Z eff is essentially the same, but the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus.
Electronegativity- tendency of an atom to attract e - .
Group Trend – As you go down a column , electronegativity decreases.
As you go down, atomic size is increasing, so less attraction to its own e - and other atom’s e - .
Periodic Trend – As you go across a period (L to R), electronegativity increases.
As you go L to R, atomic size is decreasing, so there is more attraction to its own e - and other atom’s e - .