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Timeline For Core Biology: Microbiology and Genetics Discoveries† 500 B.C. – 1500A.D. • 350 B.C. - Aristotle founds zoology. • 300 B.C. - Herophilos dissects the human body. • 300 B.C. - Diocles wrote the first known anatomy book and was the first to use the term anatomy. • 130-200 - Claudius Galen writes treatises on human anatomy. 1500A.D. – 1800A.D. • 1628 - William Harvey publishes An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals. • 1651 - William Harvey concludes that all animals, including mammals, develop from eggs. • 1663 - Robert Hooke sees cells in cork using a microscope. • 1673 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek describes microscopic life. • 1683 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes bacteria. • 1735 – Carlos Linnaeus begins the modern description of life • 1796 – Baron Georges Cuvier founds the science of comparative anatomy. 1800A.D. to Present • 1800 - The term biology in its modern sense is coined by Karl Friedrich Burdach • 1802 – The term biology is used independently by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus Jean Baptiste Lamarck. • 1809 – Jean Baptiste Lamarck proposes a modern theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics. • 1826 - Karl von Baer shows that all animal life begins with an egg. • 1838 - Matthias Schleiden proposes that all plants are composed of cells. • 1839 - Theodor Schwann proposes that all animal tissues are composed of cells. • 1856 - Louis Pasteur states that microorganisms produce fermentation. • 1858 - Rudolf Virchow proposes that cells can only arise from pre-existing cells; • 1864 - Louis Pasteur disproves the spontaneous generation of cellular life. • 1866 - Gregor Mendel formulates his Laws of Inheritance. • 1869 - Friedrich Miescher discovers nucleic acids in the nuclei of cells. • 1876 - Oskar Hertwig and Hermann Fol independently describe the entry of sperm into the egg and the subsequent fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a single new nucleus. • 1878 – Louis Pasteur proves germ theory of disease. • 1884 - Walther Fleming coins the term mitosis to describe mitosis. • 1884 - Edward Strasbourg coins the term cytoplasm to describe the cell’s central fluid and establishes the cell’s structure. • 1898 - Martinus Beijerinck uses filtering experiments to show that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a bacterium, which he names a virus. • 1902 - Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri, independently propose that the chromosomes carry the hereditary information. • 1905 - William Bateson coins the term "genetics" to describe the study of biological inheritance. • 1905 – Scientists discover how specialized sex cells come about and describe meiosis. • 1909 - Wilhelm Johannsen coins the word "gene." • 1911 - Thomas Hunt Morgan proposes that genes are arranged in a line on the chromosomes. • 1929 - Phoebus Levene discovers the sugar deoxyribose in nucleic acids. • 1944 - Oswald Avery shows that DNA carries the genetic code in pneumococcus bacteria. • 1952 - Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase show that DNA is the genetic material in bacteriophage viruses. • 1952 - Rosalind Franklin concludes that DNA is a double helix • 1953 - After examining Franklin's unpublished data, James D. Watson and Francis Crick publish a double-helix structure for DNA. • 1955 - Marianne Grunberg-Manago and Severo Ochoa discover the first nucleic- acid-synthesizing enzyme (polynucleotide phosphorylase), which links nucleotides together into polynucleotides. • 1955 - Arthur Kornberg discovers DNA polymerase enzymes. • 1967 - American biologist Lynn Margulis describes the symbiotic cell and how cooperation is one of the bases for all life on the planet. • 1995 - Publication of the first complete genome of a free-living organism. • 1996 - Dolly the sheep is first clone of an adult mammal. • 2001 - Publication of the first drafts of the complete human genome. • 2002 - First virus produced 'from scratch,' an artificial polio virus that paralyzes and kills † Bold indicates segments in Program Core Biology: Microbiology and Genetics
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