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With the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act, an urgent need has developed to address current pest management issues and embrace alternative or "reduced risk" pest control options for various commodities. A workshop was held on April 5, 2005, in Exmore, VA, to solicit input from tomato growers, Extension agents, researchers, and specialists from Virginia, North Carolina, and Delaware in order to identify critical pest management needs in the fresh market tomato industry.
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PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC
PLAN FOR TOMATO
IN
VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA,
AND DELAWARE








WORKSHOP DATE: APRIL 4, 2005
PMSP COMPLETED: JUNE 2006







Southern Region IPM Center
Virginia Tech
North Carolina State University
University of Delaware
2007


TABLE OF CONTENTS

WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND STATE CONTACTS .................. 3
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................... 7
PRIORITIES FOR TOMATO IN VA, NC, AND DE ......................... 8
PRODUCTION and CULTURAL PRACTICES ...............................10
ARTHROPOD PESTS .............................................................12
Other Tomato Insect Pests ...................................................21
TOMATO DISEASES .............................................................27
TOMATO NEMATODES ..........................................................43
EFFICACY TABLES AND TOMATO ACTIVITIES TIMELINE ...........49
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.........................................................57
ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................57
REFERENCES ......................................................................58
Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
2

WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND STATE CONTACTS
Name



Email

Organization/Address
Jim Belote

jbelote@vt.edu

Extension Agent/Unit Coordinator








Accomack Co. Extension








P.O. Box 60








Accomac, VA 23301-0060

Bil y Hal






Grower, Kuzzens Tomatoes








3769 Grapeland Circle
Exmore, VA 23350

Katie Jennings
katie_jennings@ncsu.edu
Dept. of Horticultural Science








North Carolina State University








124 Kilgore Hal , Box 7609

Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

Thomas Kuhar

tkuhar@vt.edu

Dept. of Entomology








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827

David Monks
david_monks@ncsu.edu
Dept. of Horticultural Science








North Carolina State University








128 Kilgore Hal , Box 7609








Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

Mike Paglia





UAP Cooperative
5253 Newman Lane
Eastvil e, VA 23347

Therese Schooley
tschooley@vt.edu
Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs
(former Program Manager)



34 Agnew Hal – 0409







Blacksburg, VA 24061

Bil Shockley

wishockl@vt.edu
Extension Agent/Unit Coordinator








Northampton Co. Extension








5432-A Bayside Road








Exmore, VA 23350

Jack Speese

jspeese@vt.edu

Dept. of Entomology








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827
Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
3


Rikki Sterrett

vators@vt.edu

4-H Youth Development Agent
(former Horticulturalist-Eastern Shore AREC)
Northampton Co. Extension








5432-A Bayside Road








Exmore, VA 23420-2827

Christine Waldenmaier
cwalden@vt.edu
Dept. of Plant Pathology (PPWS)








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827

Henry Wilson

hwilson@vt.edu

Dept. of Weed Science (PPWS)








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827

Primary Contacts:

Steve Toth

steve_toth@ncsu.edu

Associate Director








Southern IPM Center








3318 Gardner Hal , Box 7613








Raleigh, NC 27695-7613








919-515-8879

Mike Weaver

mweaver@vt.edu
Professor and Director
Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs
Dept. of Entomology
34 Agnew Hal , MC 0409
Blacksburg, VA 24061
540-231-6543

Susan Whitney King
swhitney@del.edu
Extension Specialist








Department of Entomology/








Wildlife Ecology








University of Delaware








252 Townsend Hal








Newark, DE 19716








302-831-8886

Written and Developed By:
Hol y Gatton

hgatton@vt.edu

Project Manager








Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs
Dept. of Entomology








34 Agnew Hal , MC 0409








Blacksburg, VA 24061

Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
4

Edited By:
Susan Nessler

snessler@vt.edu
Editor








Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs








Dept. of Entomology








34 Agnew Hal








Blacksburg, VA 24061








540-231-8715

Contributing Authors:
Thomas Kuhar

tkuhar@vt.edu

Dept. of Entomology








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827

Katie Jennings

katie_jennings@ncsu.edu Dept. of Horticultural Science








North Carolina State University








124 Kilgore Hal , Box 7609








Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

Susan Whitney King
swhitney@del.edu
Extension Specialist








Department of Entomology/








Wildlife Ecology








University of Delaware








252 Townsend Hal








Newark, DE 19716








302-831-8886

David Monks
david_monks@ncsu.edu
Dept. of Horticultural Science








North Carolina State University








128 Kilgore Hal , Box 7609








Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

Steve Rideout

srideout@vt.edu

Dept. of Plant Pathology (PPWS)








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Dr.








Painter, VA 23420-2827

Steve Toth
steve_toth@ncsu.edu

Associate Director








Southern IPM Center








3318 Gardner Hal , Box 7613








Raleigh, NC 27695-7613








919-515-8879


Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
5

Christine Waldenmaier
cwalden@vt.edu
Dept. of Plant Pathology (PPWS)








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827

Mike Weaver

mweaver@vt.edu
Professor and Director








Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs








Dept. of Entomology








34 Agnew Hal , MC 0409








Blacksburg, VA 24061








540-231-6543

Henry Wilson

hwilson@vt.edu

Dept. of Weed Science (PPWS)








Virginia Tech








Eastern Shore-AREC (0512)








33446 Research Drive








Painter, VA 23420-2827

Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

With the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act, an urgent need has
developed to address current pest management issues and embrace
alternative or “reduced risk” pest control options for various commodities. A
workshop was held on April 5, 2005, in Exmore, VA, to solicit input from
tomato growers, Extension agents, researchers, and specialists from
Virginia, North Carolina, and Delaware in order to identify critical pest
management needs in the fresh market tomato industry. The following Pest
Management Strategic Plan outlines the cultural practices used in fresh
tomato production along with the pests and diseases that are of greatest
concern to growers. Specialists in the areas of entomology, weed science,
and plant pathology have assembled data tables to demonstrate the efficacy
of currently available chemical and nonchemical control methods. The
critical needs outlined on the following pages must be addressed in order to
ensure the success of future tomato production in the mid-Atlantic states.

NOTE: Please refer to “Abbreviations” at the end of this report for a list of
abbreviations and acronyms used for organizations and other terms

discussed below.
Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
7

PRIORITIES FOR TOMATO IN VA, NC, AND DE

RESEARCH
EDUCATIONAL
REGULATORY
PRIORITIES
PRIORITIES
PRIORITIES
• Identify alternatives
• Disseminate most
• Continue to retain
to methyl bromide.
current pest
viable methyl
management
bromide use under
• Develop and offer
methods of methyl
information.
CUE.
bromide rate
• Keep growers up to
• Make EPA aware that
reductions with
date on management
VIF-type plastics may
plasticulture (VIF-
programs including
be a viable solution
type plastics such as
new chemistry,
to methyl bromide
solid metal and heat
alternatives, and
problem by reducing
trap).
related technology.
methyl bromide rates
while retaining
• Continue testing new
• Maintain up-to-date,
pesticides.
grower-friendly field
material.
and pest
• Need viable materials
• Find viable materials
that are effective, yet
management guides
that are effective, yet
acceptable to
on paper and on the
acceptable to
community (i.e.,
web. May want to
community (i.e., low-
reduced-risk and IPM-
maintain guides with
risk pesticides).
friendly pesticides).
basic pictures and
information that have
• Maintain the
registration of older
• Breed TSWV-resistant
a long shelf life. Out-
tomato varieties.
broad-spectrum
of-print guides need
pesticides that are
• Manage weeds:
to be reprinted with
viable and safe as a
sedges (yellow,
some new
rotational tool for
purple, and annual),
information.
resistance
common purslane,
• Adopt grower-friendly
management.
morningglory,
technology to ensure
nightshade,
timely and efficient
• Adopt Special Local
groundcherry, and
Need (Section 24C)
transfer of pest
other broadleaf
and Emergency Use
management
weeds.
Exemption (Section
information to
18) labels in a timely
• Do research on
growers.
and realistic manner
insects (e.g., stink
• Provide publications
with respect to
bugs, thrips, and
and tools for growers.
grower needs.
spider mites).
• Develop topic-specific
• Inform EPA of the
• Do research on
one- to two-page fact
need to establish
diseases (e.g., TSWV,
Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
8

bacterial speck,
sheets.
clear and
bacterial spot,
understandable label
botrytis, fruit rots,
• Continue to retain
viable methyl
standards for
fusarium/verticillium
bromide use under
enclosed cabs.
wilts, and
CUE.

nematodes).
• Develop pesticide
• Investigate
resistance
threshold/damage
management
relationships and
education programs
evaluation/prediction
to control insects,
tools for insects,
diseases, and weeds.
diseases, and weeds.
• Manage pesticide
resistance of insect,
disease, and weed
pests.
• Develop clear and
understandable
enclosed-cab safety
standards.


Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
9

PRODUCTION and CULTURAL PRACTICES
PRODUCTION FACTS AND FIGURES
A total of 209 million lbs. of tomatoes worth nearly $96 million were
produced in Virginia in 2004. Of the 5,700 acres of tomatoes planted, 5,500
acres were harvested, most of which were destined for the fresh market.
Tomato production averaged 380 cwt./acre in Virginia. Much of the eastern
U.S. tomato crop was lost due to hurricane damage, which caused tomato
prices to jump to $45.90 per hundredweight. Virginia ranked 3rd in the
nation in tomato production in 2004, producing 5.8% of the nation’s total.
North Carolina ranked 9th in tomato production in 2004, producing 62
million lbs. worth $17,980,000. Delaware produced 800,000 lbs. on 60
acres (135 cwt./A) in 2001 worth $284,000.
PRODUCTION REGIONS
Most of the tomatoes grown in Virginia are produced on the Eastern Shore in
Accomack and Northampton counties. Tomatoes are also produced in
Hanover and Westmoreland counties. The sandy loam soil that is found in
these areas is excellent for tomato production. In North Carolina, tomatoes
are produced mainly in the western (Henderson, Buncombe, Haywood,
Macon, Polk, and Rutherford counties), Piedmont (Rowan, Cleveland, and
Lincoln counties), and Coastal Plain (Sampson County) regions. Tomatoes
are grown in all three of Delaware’s counties: New Castle, Kent, and Sussex.
TOMATO VARIETIES
Tomato varieties suitable for Virginia’s climate include: Sunshine, Sunbeam,
Sunbrite, Sun Leaper, Mountain Fresh, Mountain Bell, Florida 47, Florida 91,
Plum Crimson, Plum Dandy, Carolina Gold, Mini Charm, and Juliete. All
these varieties are recommended for planting in Delaware except Sun
Leaper, Mini Charm, and Mountain Fresh. Additional Delaware varieties
include Amelia, Floralina, Cupid, Santa, TSH4, H-9704, and H-9997. Most
tomatoes grown in North Carolina are of the “Mountain” series, which were
developed at NCSU. Specific tomato varieties grown in North Carolina
include Amelia VR, BHN 446, BHN 640, Carolina Gold, Celebrity, Floralina,
Florida 47, Mountain Crest, Mountain Fresh, Mountain Spring, Solar Set, Sun
Chaser, Sun Leaper, Sunbeam, Sunrise, Cherry Grande, Mountain Belle, Sun
Gold, Elfin, Jolly Elf, Navidad, Rosa, Santa Claus, Saint Nick, BHN 410,
Spectrum 882, and Plum Crimson. Different tomato varieties have varying
levels of resistance to certain diseases. For example, Mini Charm is resistant
to verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt, and tobacco mosaic virus. However,
Sunbrite, Sunbeam, Mountain Fresh, Mountain Bell, Florida 91, Sunleaper,
Plum Crimson, and Plum Dandy are resistant only to verticillium and
fusarium wilt. The North Carolina varieties Amelia VR and BHN 640 are
resistant to TSWV.
Tomato Pest Management Strategic Plan – Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware
10

Document Outline

  • Cover Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Workshop Participants and State Contacts
  • Executive Summary
  • Priorities for Tomato in VA, NC and DE
  • Production and Cultural Practices
  • Arthropod Pests
  • Summary - Chemical Arthropod Control
  • Tomato Diseases
  • Summary - Chemical Disease Control
  • Tomato Nematodes
  • Summary - Chemical Nematode Control
  • Tomato Weeds
  • Summary - Chemical Weed Control
  • Efficacy Tables and Tomato Activities Timeline
  • Acknowledgements and Abbreviations
  • References

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