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9/29/2009
LING6014 Lecture 4
Language Contact
Language Contact and Canton Pidgin English
 ¢¡¤£¢¥§¦§¨¤©§
“A term used to apply to situations
Robert S. Bauer
where two or more groups of
26 September 2009
speakers who do not have a native
language in common are in social
contact with one another or come
into such contact.”
(Trudgil 2003:74)
1
4
Topics in This Lecture
Language Contact
Language Contact and Its Consequences
 !
“Communication between the groups
Lingua Franca

,

,

may be difficult in the short term,
"$#
%'&
(0)
Pidgin

,

,

,

and may in the long term lead to
"1
23'4
56
78
Contact Language  ,

,
the different languages influencing
9A@
%

B
one another, as a result of
Linguistic Borrowing C
bilingualism on the part of (some of)
)
Language Mixing
the speakers involved.”

"$#
International Language

(Trudgil 2003:74)
2
5
D&
Topics in This Lecture
Language Contact
Trade Language

,

E0F
GAH
Lexifier

“Language contact may lead to or
IAP'Q$RTS
Relexification UV
involve phenomena such as
I
Chinese Pidgin English

,
borrowing, code-switching,
WX23'4
language shift, lingua francas,
Y`
or Canton Pidgin English
(0)a$b
cd
(also known as China Coast
multilingualism and pidginisation.”
a$b
Pidgin, China Coast Pidgin English)
(Trudgil 2003:74)
Some Features of Chinese Pidgin English
cd
3
6
a$be0f
1

9/29/2009
Consequences of
Language Contact
Lingua Francas
Language contact situations can produce
“Lingua francas which are used in a
a wide variety of linguistic phenomena:
large-scale institutionalised way in
different parts of the world include
Lingua francas
 
,
 
,
 
gih
p¤q
r¢s
Swahili in East Africa and French and
Pidgins
,

,

,
English in West Africa. A pidgin
23'4
23'4
56

language is a particular form of lingua
"1
Bilingualism
franca. The term is derived from the
 ¢u
,  ¢viw
t
t
Mediterranean lingua franca, Lingua
Code-switching  x
, x¤‚
p€y

y
Franca.” (Trudgil 2003:80)
Code-mixing
x
r¢s¤
7
Loanwords
10
ƒ¤„
Consequences of
Original Lingua Franca
Language Contact
“A Romance-based pidgin, with Provencal
and Italian as the main lexifiers [i.e.
International languages

D&
sources of vocabulary], but also derived in
Auxiliary languages

some areas more than others, from
…†
Contact languages  ,

,
Portuguese, Spanish, French, Catalan
9A@

B
and Ladino. Now extinct, but formerly
%
Trade languages
spoken in coastal areas of the

,

E0F
GAH
Mediterranean, including especial y North
Africa, the Levant and the Greek islands,
as a trading lingua franca. Also known as
8
11
‘Sabir’.” (continued)
Lingua Franca
Original Lingua Franca
,
,
“ . . . Some scholars who favour the
monogenesis theory of pidgin and creole
“A language which is used in
origins have suggested that the Lingua
communication between speakers who
Franca was the original pidgin from which
have no native language in common.
al others are derived. The [Latin] term
For example, if English is used in
means ‘Frankish language’, with ‘Frank’
communication between native speakers
being a label often used by the Orthodox
of Swedish and Dutch, then it is
Christian people of the eastern
functioning as a lingua franca.”
Mediterranean to refer to Catholics from
(continued)
the west, particularly if Romance-
9
12
speaking.” (Trudgil 2003: 79-80)
2

9/29/2009
Lexifier
Origin of the First Lingua Franca
“In the study of pidgin and creole
In the Middle Ages from the 12th to 14th
languages, [this is] the language from
centuries a trade language became
which most of the vocabulary has
widely spoken in a number of ports
been taken. In English-based creoles,
around the Mediterranean Sea.
such as Krio and Sranan, there are
This trade language had mainly developed
more words that have come from
from the mixing together of two
English than from any other
languages of the Middle Ages, namey
language. . .” (Trudgil 2003:79)
Ligurian, which was an Italian dialect,
and Provencal, which was a southern
13
French dialect.
16
International Language
Origin of the First Lingua Franca
“A lingua franca which is used for
The European Crusaders spoke this
communication between different
language as their common, shared
countries. English is currently very
language and took it with them to the
often used in this way, as are other
Middle East where it came under the
languages such as Russian and
influence of Arabic.
French.” (Trudgil 2003:65)
It then evolved into a variety which was
Mandarin/Putonghua is also being
cal ed Lingua Franca in Latin, that is,
used this way in East and Southeast
‘Frankish language’.
Asia.
14
17
Trade Language
International Language
,
An International language is a language
“A lingua franca which is used mainly
which has become widely used as a
for informal commercial purposes.”
foreign language or as a second
(Trudgil 2003:135)
language by speakers from many
different countries for their cross-
The main purpose of Canton Pidgin
linguistic and international
English was to facilitate trade
communication.
between foreigners (who were mainly
In the Middle Ages Latin was an
British and American) and Chinese
international language among scholars
merchants.
from various countries.
15
18
3

9/29/2009
French and English as
16th Century Portuguese-
International Languages
Influenced Pidgin
From 15th to 16th century Portuguese sailors
In the 18th to 19th centuries French was
learned to speak the original Lingua Franca;
an international language, especial y
as a result, it came under the influence of
for diplomacy.
Portuguese, and a large part of the vocabulary
From the 20th century to the present
became Portuguese.
time English has become the most
Portuguese explorers took this lingua franca to
widely spoken international language.
Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and
various ports of East Asia. People who came
into contact with them found it useful to be
able to speak this lingua franca and so they
19
learned it from the Portuguese sailors.
22
Auxiliary Language
Portuguese-influenced Pidgin
“The term ‘auxiliary’ implies that it is intended to
The Portuguese arrived in south China in
be an additional language for the people of
the early 16th century, and established for
the world, rather than replace their native
themselves the tiny enclave of Macau in
languages.
1557.
Often, the phrase is used to refer to constructed
For a time Chinese officials only al owed the
[i.e. deliberately invented] languages
Portuguese to trade in Macau and Canton
proposed specifical y to ease worldwide
international communication, such as
where business was conducted with
Esperanto, Ido, and Interlingua.”
Chinese merchants in a pidgin based on
(continued)
Portuguese.
20
23
Auxiliary Language
Pidgin Influenced by English
“However, [auxiliary language] can also refer
In the17th century British merchants began
to the concept of such a language being
coming to Macau and Canton to do business,
determined by international consensus,
but they first had to learn to speak the
including even a natural language so
Portuguese pidgin since this was the dominant
chosen (e.g., International English).
language in which business was conducted.
Auxiliary language aficionados cal these
Later, as British power became stronger and the
languages auxlangs.”
British presence increased in South China, the
(from Wikipedia, International Auxiliary
pidgin came under the influence of English
Language, 16 November 2006)
and underwent a process of relexification, that
is, the majority of the original vocabulary was
21
24
replaced by English words.
4

9/29/2009
Contact Language
Pidgin
,
,
When people who speak different languages
The vocabulary of a pidgin is relatively
come into intimate and prolonged social
smal and the syntax is fairly simple.
contact, due to their needs to communicate,
However, after prolonged contact and
they sometimes create a comparatively simple
use both the lexicon and grammar of
but mixed language which is usual y referred
the pidgin may undergo further
to as a contact language.
development according to the needs
The sound system and syntax of this simple
of the speakers. (Richards et al.
contact language are much simpler than those
of ordinary languages, and its vocabulary is
1998:347)
also quite limited.
25
28
Pidgins in North and South America
Contact Language and Pidgin
and the Pacific
An example of a contact language is
pidgin.
(Extinct)
(Extinct)
Some scholars believe that the word
pidgin is derived from the way the
English word business was
pronounced by Cantonese speakers
in the 18th century.
26
29
Pidgin
Distribution of Pidgins across Africa,
A pidgin is not anyone’s mother tongue
Asia, and South Pacific
or first language, but develops through
the contact and mixing of two other
languages.
(Extinct)
(Extinct?)
According to Richards et al. (1998:347),
a pidgin is a variety of language that
can arise between foreign traders and
Cameroonian
Tok Pisin or
local people who work on plantations or
or Kamtok
in factories due to their need to
communicate with each other for some
27
purpose such as conducting trade.
30
5

9/29/2009
Pidginized Language and
Trade Language
Development of Pidgin Vocabulary
The first term refers to a kind of pidgin that
In the 16th century before the British had
has come under the strong influence of
arrived in southern China to conduct
another language so that its vocabulary
trade, there were Portuguese, Indians,
and syntax absorb elements from that
Dutch, and other people speaking a
other language.
Portuguese-based pidgin in the region.
An example is
As a result, most of the vocabulary was
cd
, i.e. Canton Pidgin
a$b
or Chinese Pidgin (also cal ed Chinese
Portuguese, but this pidgin had also
Pidgin English) which was used primarily
absorbed some words from Hindi and
as a trade language, but also as a kind of
Malay. It was later to become very much
31
lingua franca.
34
influenced by English.
Canton Pidgin
Foreign Words in Chinese Pidgin
Canton Pidgin grammar had its own syntax and
morphological rules.
Portuguese:
cd
Canton Pidgin:
a$b
It was widely used in the 18th and 19th centuries
sabe
=> savvy
‘know’
‡Aˆ
in southern China, including the area from
‡'‰
Canton down to Macau and had been created
querer
=> carei
‘want’
by Chinese and foreigners for the purpose of
'‘
conducting trade.
conta
=> conta ’“
Canton Pidgin took much of its vocabulary from
‘count’
English and Portuguese, while its sentence
caixa
=> cash
[
] ‘cash’
structure and phonology were influenced by
'”
32
Cantonese.
35
Two Kinds of
Malay and Hindi Words
Canton Pidgin English
in Canton Pidgin
While Canton Pidgin was a mixture of languages,
Malay godong => godown
[
]
•'–
two kinds of it can be recognized, according to
‘godown’ (HK English)
who was speaking it:
Malay catty => catty '—
“ . . . two different genres of CCP (China Coast
‘catty’ (HK English)
Pidgin) can be identified: the Chinese genre, as
in the Chinese-authors booklets, and the
Hindi kuli
=> coolie ˜™
Anglophone CCP, as represented in the
‘coolie’
literature and possibly the speech used within
Hindi saraf => shroff
Western circles.” (from Ansaldo, Matthews, and
‡$d
Smith, p. 4, to appear)
‘shroff (cashier)’ (HK
33
36
English)
6

9/29/2009
Influence of English on Chinese Pidgin
Booklets for Teaching Chinese
Pidgin to Chinese People
In the early 18th century British traders started
arriving in increasing numbers in China to buy
In order to do business with foreigners,
Chinese goods, such as tea, porcelain, silk,
some Chinese people in the 18th and 19th
articles made of silver, carved ivory, etc.
centuries used some special y produced
Because the British especial y liked to drink
booklets to study Canton Pidgin.
Chinese tea, the result was that more and more
British traders came to China to buy tea. The
These books used Chinese characters and
result was that the English language began to
their Cantonese pronunciations to
influence the development of the Canton Pidgin
represent the vocabulary and
or Chinese Pidgin lexicon so that it started
pronunciation of Canton Pidgin.
absorbing many words from English.
37
40
Foreign Merchants Buying Tea in Canton (ca. 1820)
Books for Teaching Canton Pidgin
to Chinese People
One of the earliest books for helping Chinese
people to learn Canton Pidgin and which stil
survives is the little book
€
}~q§¢gih
produced in about 1835 by an unknown
author.
In addition to this book, another very important
6-volume work for helping us study Canton
Pidgin is
 ¢‚§ƒA€
The Chinese and
}~
English Instructor by
Tang Ting Shu
„¤…¢†
and published in Canton in 1862.
38
41
Cantonese “ ”
=
‘Foreign’
This book is
egfihkj
:
Standard Chinese & English:
believed to
soap’
have been
l
min
published in
pumpkin’
l
op
Canton in about
sweet potato’
1835. The
l
q§r
picture is of a
¢s
,
tomato’
l
t¤q¢u
Portuguese
¢v¢w
guava’
Fidalgo
l
(member of the
 
foreign language’
l
x
lower nobility)
39
foreigners’
42
circa 1750.
l
xzy|{
7

9/29/2009
Note on Phonetic Transcription
Hung Mou Tung Yung Faan Waa
The book’s title can be translated as ‘foreign
N.B. In the fol owing slides the
language widely used by the red hair(ed
pronunciation of words in Canton Pidgin
people)’
and other pidgins has been transcribed
The phrase Y`
(pronounced “hung4 mou4”
with symbols from the International
in Cantonese) literal y means ‘red hair’ (=
Phonetic Alphabet and enclosed within
“ang moh” in Singapore English) and was
square brackets; Cantonese tone
one of the names used by the Chinese to
contours have been indicated with tone
refer to Europeans in the 18th and 19th
graphs and two numbers for tone values
centuries because some of them, such as
only in the next two slides for numbers.
43
the Dutch, had red hair.
46
Some Special Features of
ŠŒ‹
/
:

‹Œ”
:
ŒŽ
‘“’
Ž–•˜—–™˜ŒŽ–•š—

= one [
]
=
[
55]
First, this book was bilingual:
œ

= two [
] =
[
55]
ž
Cantonese words were fol owed by
Ÿ
= three [
] =
[ 22
23] *
 –¡
the equivalent words in English-
¢
= four [ ]
=
[
55]
£
influenced Canton Pidgin.
¤
= five [
] =
[
55]
¥
¦
= six [
] =
[
5
22]
Second, it used the Cantonese
§Œ¨
©
= seven [
] =
[
55]
ª
pronunciations of the Chinese
«
= eight [
] =
[
22]
¬
characters to phonetical y transliterate
­
= nine [
] =
[
21]

®
(i.e. imitate) the pronunciations of the
¯
= ten [
] =
[
55]
°
equivalent words in Canton Pidgin.
*In 19th century vowels of
and
had not

±
44
47
yet dipthongized to [
First page of
Vocabulary for Business in
Y`

(0)a$b‰ˆ
²´³
³¾½
listed numbers in
/
:
:
µ·¶
¸º¹¼»
¶¾¿¾À·Á·µ·¶¾¿¾À
´Ã
= eleven [
] =
[
21]
Chinese fol owed
Ä
ÂÆÅ
= twelve [ ! ] =
? [ " 55]
Ç
by Chinese
´È
= thirteen [
] =
[
33
55]
É´Ê
characters whose
ºË
= fourteen [
] =
[ 55
55]
Ì´Ê
Cantonese
´Í
= fifteen [
] =
[
55
55]
δÊ
ÂÆÏ
pronunciations
= sixteen [
] =
[
5
22
55]
зѾÊ
´Ò
imitated
= seventeen [
] =
[
55
55]
Ó¾Ê
´Ô
= eighteen [
] =
[
22
55]
pronunciations of
Õ·Ê
·Ö
= nineteen [
] =
[
21
55]
×´Ê
equivalent words
ÅØÂ
= twenty [ !
] =
[ " 55
22]
Ù´Ú
45
in Canton Pidgin.
48
8

9/29/2009
Pages 2 and 3 of
Pages 4 & 5 of
49
52
Vocabulary for Business
Vocabulary for Business
Û
0ÜÝ
:
cd
Canton Pidgin:
Û
0ÜÝ
a$b
:
cd
Canton Pidgin:
a$b
ú0û
ÞAß
= one catty
é
àA'—
=
#
üAýAþ$'”
‘one catty’
how muchee cash ‘how much money’
á
ÿ
¡ 
ß
= hap catty
#
=
nah carei ‘not want’
â'—
¢
ï'‘
‘half catty’
(carei is from Portuguese querer)
û
¤£
Þã
= ten thousand
=
thank ‘thank (you)’
ó
¦¥
ä'å0æ
‘ten thousand’
Þçè$é
=
one dol ar à“ê
50

53
one dol ar’
Vocabulary for Business
Terms for People by Occupation
Û
0ÜÝ
Û
0ÜÝ
:
cd
Chinese Pidgin:
:
cd
Canton Pidgin:
a$b
a$b
§©¨¦
=
tailor man
Þç
=
one piecee

A‘¦
àëì

‘tailor’
one piece’
©
=
gunner man
íïîAð
=
buy what thing
©©
ñòTó
‘gunner’
‘what thing do you buy?’

ôzõ
=
soldier man
=
likee o
] ‘like’
@

'þ¦
ö0÷
‘soldier’
ôzõ
ø
=
no likee
o
‘not like’


ù
ö0÷
=
sailor man

‘¦
51
54
‘sailor’
9

9/29/2009
Pages 6 & 7
Other Vocabulary Items
Û
0ÜÝ
:
cd
Canton Pidgin:
a$b
=
clean ‘clean’

¡B
¥¡C
D©E
=
[
] losee ‘lose’
F

G
=
[
] inside ‘inside’
H¡I
P
=
[
] outside
Q1I
‘outside’
55
58
Terms for Kinds of People
Other Vocabulary Items
!
:
cd
Canton Pidgin:

a$b
!
í
¡"
=
û
comprador
: cd
Canton Pidgin:

a$b
#%$
7
‘comprador’
=
[
] man ‘man’

R
&
=
[
] mother ‘mother’
=
[
] cal um ‘cal

¦S
'
A“
(
=
(
)
someone’
è
[
] father ‘father’
T1S

U
=
[#
] hap die ‘have died’
)
=
[
" ] brother
â
¡V
$10“
W
‘brother’
=
[
] sleep ‘sleep’
X©Y
2
=
[#
] husiman
(
)
ì
¦Y
#
3
'ì¦
56
‘husband’
59
Terms for Kinds of People
Pages 8 & 9 of
!
:
cd
Canton Pidgin:

a$b
2¦4
=
(
[
] waifoo ‘wife’
5
6©7
=
[
] woman
8¡
‘woman’
9©@
=
[
] padre ‘monk’
A
$—A‘
(padre from Portuguese)
57
60
10

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