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Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles

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During recent years there has been increasing awareness of, and concern about, water pollution all over the world, and new approaches towards achieving sustainable exploitation of water resources have been developed internationally. It is widely agreed that a properly developed policy framework is a key element in the sound management of water resources. A number of possible elements for such policies have been identified, especially during the preparation of Agenda 21 as well as during various follow up activities. This chapter proposes some general principles for the policy making process and for policy document structure. Some examples of policy elements which support the overall sustainable management of water resources are also given.
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Showing 2 comments

by sumit on September 23rd, 2010 at 03:59 am
maine Ganga-maai kee vyathaa-kathaa ko ingit karte huye ek lekh likha hai, kya aapko vah chaahiye? ho sakta hai us se uttardaayiyo ke netr khul jaayen 09425605432 sumit Bhopal
by Sushil bhadula on November 19th, 2010 at 02:18 am
i Am working on water quality of Ganga river and I will very thankful to you
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Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water
Quality Management Principles


Edited by
Richard Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol
Published on behalf of

UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme

Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council

World Health Organization
E & FN Spon
An imprint of Thomson Professional
London. Weinheim. New York. Tokyo. Melbourne. Madras
Also available from E & FN Spon
The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease
C. Gleeson and N. Gray
Ecological Effects of Wastewater
2nd Edition
E.B. Welch

Handbook of Drinking Water Quality
2nd Edition
J. DeZuane
Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering
2nd Edition
A. Chadwick and J. Morfett
Hydraulic Structures
2nd Edition
P. Novak, A. Moffat, C. Nalluri and R. Naryanan
International River Water Quality
G. Best, T. Bogacka and E. Neimircyz
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater
19th Edition
Water Environment Federation
Water and Wastewater Treatment
4th Edition
R. Bardolet
Water: Economics, Management and Demand
M. Kay, T. Franks and L. Smith
Water Policy
P. Howsam and R. Carter
Water Quality Assessments
2nd Edition
D. Chapman
Water Quality Monitoring
J. Bartram and R. Ballance
For more information about these and other titles please contact:
The Marketing Department, E & FN Spon, 2-6 Boundary Row, London, SE1 8HN. Tel:
0171 865 0066
Published by E & FN Spon, an imprint of Thomson Professional,
2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN
Thomson Science & Professional, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK
Thomson Science & Professional, Pappelallee 3, 69469 Weinheim, Germany
Thomson Science & Professional, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA

Thomson Science & Professional, ITP-Japan, Kyowa Building, 3F, 2-2-1 Hirakawacho,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan
Thomson Science & Professional, 102 Dodds Street, South Melbourne, Victoria 3205,
Australia
Thomson Science & Professional, R. Seshadri, 32 Second Main Road, CIT East,
Madras 600 035, India
First edition 1997
© 1997 WHO/UNEP
Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk
ISBN 0 419 22910 8
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or
review, as permitted under the UK Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this
publication may not be reproduced, stored, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
without the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic
reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright
Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the
appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning
reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers at the
London address printed on this page.
The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy
of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or
liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Printed on permanent acid-free text paper, manufactured in accordance with
ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 and ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1984 (Permanence of Paper).
Ordering information
Water Pollution Control
A guide to the use of water quality management principles
1997, 526 pages
ISBN 0419229108
published on behalf of WHO by F & FN Spon
11 New Fetter Lane
London EC4) 4EE
Telephone: +44 171 583 9855
Fax: +44 171 843 2298
Order on line: http://www.earthprint.com


Table of Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1 - Policy and Principles
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Policy framework
1.3 Guiding principles for water pollution control
1.4 Strategy formulation
1.5 References
Chapter 2 - Water Quality Requirements
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Why water quality criteria and objectives?
2.3 Water quality criteria for individual use categories
2.4 Water quality objectives
2.5 Conclusions and recommendations
2.6 References
Chapter 3 - Technology Selection
3.1 Integrating waste and water management
3.2 Wastewater origin, composition and significance
3.3 Wastewater management
3.4 Pollution prevention and minimisation
3.5 Sewage conveyance
3.6 Costs, operation and maintenance
3.7 Selection of technology
3.8 Conclusions and recommendations
3.9 References
Chapter 4 - Wastewater as a Resource
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types of reuse
4.3 Implementing or upgrading agricultural reuse systems
4.4 Technical aspects of health protection
4.5 Conclusions and recommendations
4.6 References
Chapter 5 - Legal and Regulatory Instruments

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Inventories for pollution control
5.3 Derivation of standards for point sources
5.4 Regulation of point sources
5.5 Non-point source pollution
5.6 Groundwater protection
5.7 Transboundary pollution
5.8 Conclusions
5.9 References
Chapter 6 - Economic Instruments
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Why use economic instruments?
6.3 Applying economic instruments
6.4 Choosing between instruments
6.5 Application in developing countries
6.6 Conclusions
6.7 References
Chapter 7 - Financing Wastewater Management
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The challenges of urban sanitation
7.3 The financial challenges
7.4 Strategic planning and policies for sustainable sanitation services
7.5 Conclusions
7.6 References
Chapter 8 - Institutional Arrangements
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The water pollution control sub-sector
8.3 Institutions and organisations
8.4 Criteria and determinants
8.5 Examples of institutional arrangements
8.6 Capacity building
8.7 Conclusions
8.8 References
Chapter 9 - Information Systems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The importance of integration
9.3 Specifying information needs
9.4 Information gathering and dissemination
9.5 From data to information tools
9.6 Design of monitoring networks and selection of variables
9.7 Monitoring technology
9.8 References

Chapter 10 - Framework for Water Pollution Control
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Initial analysis of water quality problems
10.3 Establishing objectives for water pollution control
10.4 Management tools and instruments
10.5 Action plan for water pollution control
10.6 References
Case Study I - The Ganga, India
I.1 Introduction
I.2 The Ganga river
I.3 The Ganga Action Plan
I.4 Implementation problems
I.5 River water quality monitoring
I.6 The future
I.7 Conclusions and lessons learned
I.8 Recommendations
I.9 Source literature
Case Study II - Shanghai Huangpu River, China
II.1 Introduction
II.2 Background information
II.3 Institutional development and industrial pollution control
II.4 Pollution control strategy for the Huangpu River
II.5 Other major measures used in cleaning the Huangpu River
II.6 Conclusions
II.7 References
Case Study III - The Pasig River, Philippines
III.1 Country profile
III.2 Basin identification
III.3 Pre-intervention situation
III.4 The intervention scenario
III.5 Lessons learned, constraints and opportunities
III.6 Conclusions and recommendations
Case Study IV - Nigeria
IV.1 Introduction
IV.2 National environmental policy
IV.3 Water resources management
IV.4 Industrial water pollution control programme
IV.5 Conclusions
IV.6 References
Case Study V - The Witbank Dam Catchment

V.1 Introduction
V.2 Background information
V.3 The Witbank Dam catchment
V.4 Pre-intervention situation
V.5 Intervention with a new approach
V.6 Shortcomings of the approach
V.7 Conclusions
V.8 References
Case Study VI - The Upper Tietê Basin, Brazil
VI.1 Introduction
VI.2 The metropolitan region of São Paulo
VI.3 Pre-intervention situation
VI.4 The Tietê Project
VI.5 Industrial wastewater management
VI.6 Conclusions
VI.7 References
Case Study VII - The Mezquital Valley, Mexico
VII.1 Introduction
VII.2 The Mezquital Valley
VII.3 Pre-intervention situation
VII.4 Intervention scenario
VII.5 Lessons learned, constraints and opportunities
VII.6 Conclusions and recommendations
VII.7 References
Case Study VIII - Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico
VIII.1 Introduction
VIII.2 The Lerma-Chapala basin
VIII.3 Pre-intervention situation
VIII.4 Intervention scenario
VIII.5 Conclusions and lessons for the future
VIII.6 Final reflections
Case Study IX - The Danube Basin
IX.1 Introduction
IX.2 Economic activities in the basin
IX.3 The Environmental Programme for the Danube river basin
IX.4 The strategic action plan
IX.5 Problems and priorities
IX.6 Strategic directions
IX.7 Conclusions
IX.8 References
Case Study X - Moscow Region, Russia

X.1 Introduction
X.2 Description of the region
X.3 Water systems
X.4 Water resources assessment
X.5 Pollution sources
X.6 Major problems
X.7 The programme
X.8 International co-operation
X.9 Conclusion
X.10 References
Case Study XI - Cyprus
XI.1 Introduction
XI.2 Water resources
XI.3 Measures to conserve and replenish groundwater
XI.4 Direct use of treated wastewater for irrigation
XI.5 Pollution of water resources
XI.6 Conclusions and recommendations
XI.7 References
Case Study XII - Kingdom of Jordan
XII.1 Introduction
XII.2 General information on Jordan and Greater Amman
XII.3 Wastewaters and water pollution control
XII.4 Existing major wastewater management problems and needs
XII.5 Management solution alternatives
XII.6 Recommendations and possible results
XII.7 References
Case Study XIII - Sana'a, Yemen
XIII.1 Introduction
XIII.2 Water issues
XIII.3 Planned interventions
XIII.4 Lessons learned and conclusions
XIII.5 References
Appendix - Participants in the Working Group
Water Pollution Control

Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management
Principles
Edited by Richard Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol
Published on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Water Supply &
Sanitation Collaborative Council and the World Health Organization by E. & F. Spon
© 1997 WHO/UNEP
ISBN 0 419 22910 8


Foreword
Publication of this book is a milestone for the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative
Council. It demonstrates the Council's unique capacity to bring together water and
sanitation professionals from industrialised and developing countries to formulate
practical guidance on a key issue of the day.
Industrialised countries have extensive experience of the problems caused by water
pollution and the strategies and technologies available to control it. In the developing
world, although pollution is increasing rapidly with urbanisation and industrialisation,
most countries have very limited experience of pollution control measures or of the
institutional and legislative frameworks needed to make such measures effective. On the
other hand, the Collaborative Council's developing country members have the specialist
knowledge and skills with which to adapt the practices of the industrialised nations to
their own circumstances.
This synergy among members is at the heart of the Council's approach to sector issues.
By mandating specialist working groups to seek out good practices, to analyse them and
to reach agreement on the best way forward, the Council is able to give its members
authoritative guidance and tools to help them face their own particular challenges.
Water pollution control is clearly one of the most critical of those challenges. Without
urgent and properly directed action, developing countries face mounting problems of
disease, environmental degradation and economic stagnation, as precious water
resources become more and more contaminated. At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro
in June 1992, world leaders recognised the crucial importance of protecting freshwater
resources. Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 sees "effective water pollution prevention and
control programmes" as key elements of national sustainable development plans.
At its second Global Forum, in Rabat, Morocco, in 1993, the Collaborative Council
responded to the Rio accord by mandating a Working Group on Water Pollution Control,
convened jointly with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment
Programme. We were fortunate that Richard Helmer from the World Health Organization
agreed to co-ordinate the Working Group. Richard had been a prime mover in the
preparation of the freshwater initiatives endorsed in Rio de Janeiro and so was
particularly well placed to ensure that the Group's deliberations were well directed.
Experts from developing countries, UN agencies, bilaterals, professional associations,

and academic institutions have all contributed over the last three and a half years. The
Council is grateful to them, and I want to express my own personal appreciation for the
voluntary time and effort they have devoted to the task.
The result is a comprehensive guidebook which I know will be a valuable tool for policy
makers and environmental managers in developing and newly industrialised countries as
they seek to combat the damaging health, environmental and economic impacts of water
pollution. The council will play its part in advocacy and promotion. We all owe a duty to
future generations to safeguard their water supplies and to protect their living
environment.

Margaret Catley-Carlson,
Chair, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council




Document Outline
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1. Policy and principles
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Policy framework
    • 1.3 Guiding principles for water pollution control
    • 1.4 Strategy formulation
    • 1.5 References
  • Chapter 2. Water quality requirements
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Why water quality criteria and objectives?
    • 2.3 Water quality criteria for individual use categories
    • 2.4 Water quality objectives
    • 2.5 Conclusions and recommendations
    • 2.6 References
  • Chapter 3. Technology selection
    • 3.1 Integrating waste and water management
    • 3.2 Wastewater origin

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