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Welding defects

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Welding defects
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  • Added: January, 06th 2011
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  • Pages: 50
  • Tags: welding defects, welding, welder
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Content Preview
Welding defects
1
The purpose of this training material is to
tell about various welding defects and their
effects to the strength of metal construction,
and also how to avoid welding defects.

Welding defects
2
THE WELD : The weakest point of metal construction?
Reasons why the welded seam is weakest point of metal construction:
– Welding defects
– Wrong sequence of welding
F
F
– Welding stresses
– Welding deformation
– Base material overheating
– Characteristic of material variation
Damage usually starts from area of welded seam
Weakness of welding seam is a result of Welding defects
A weld which is made the correct way is as strong and as hard as other
parts of the metal product

Welding defects
3
How to eliminate welding seam faults?
– Careful and faultless welding work
– Correct filler material selection
– Use the correct welding parameters and welding technique
– Work according to the WPS´s ( Welding Procedure Specification )
– Follow the manufacturers instructions and recommendations
– Follow the heat input recommendation
• For impact ductility and strength
F
F

Welding defects
4
What is welding defect?
– Discontinuity in the weld
– Difference in the form of the weld
Welding defects are for example:
– Cracks in the weld
– Failure in penetration
– Undercutting
– Porosity in the weld
– Lack of fusion
– Spatter
Welding defect means: Deviation from perfect weld

Welding defects
5
Welding defects are grouped to the following six main groups:
Cracks
Lack of fusion
Cavity
Wrong shape
Solid inclusion
Dimensional error
Welding defects can be divided roughly to the three groups:
– Wrong shapes
– Surface defects
– Internal weld defects

Welding defects
6
Surface and internal weld defects are grouped to two and
three-dimensional:
Two-dimensional defects are flat surface and known also as crack
type defects
Two-dimensional defects are sharp-pointed:
– Very dangerous for joint durability
Two-dimensional defects are:
– Various cracks
– Lack of fusion
– Short joint penetration

Welding defects
7
Three-dimensional defect also known as volumetric, ball-shaped
defect or cylindrical without sharp pointed shape
Three-dimensional defects are:
– Pores and other cavities
– Inclusions, if they have not sharp-pointed shape
– Undercuts, if they have round bottom

Welding defects
8
Cracks on the welding area: ( Cooling down and strength causes these cracks )
Micro crack
Longitudinal crack
Weld metal
Welding zone
– In weld metal
Base material
Base material
– On fusion line
– On heat affected zone
– In base material
Cross crack
Fusion line
– In weld metal
HAZ
Fusion zone
– On heat affected zone
Heat affected area
– In base material
HAZ = Heat affected zone

Welding defects
9
Cracks on the welding area: ( Cooling down and strength?? causes these cracks )
Radiation crack
Weld metal
– In weld metal
Welding zone
– On heat affected zone
Base material
Base material
– In base material
Crater crack
– To longitudinal direction
– Across
Fusion line
– Radially
HAZ
Fusion zone
Heat affected area
HAZ = Heat affected zone

Welding defects
1
0
Cracks on the welding area: ( Cooling down and strength causes these cracks )
Crack group
Weld metal
– In weld metal
Welding zone
– In heat affected zone
Base material
Base material
– In base material
Branch crack
– In weld metal
– In heat affected zone
Fusion line
– In base material
HAZ
Fusion zone
Heat affected area
HAZ = Heat affected zone

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