What Is Accounting
for Fixed Assets?
Most accounting professionals believe that all there is to be learned
about asset accounting occurred in the introductory course on princi-
ples of accounting. Therefore, although this subject can become quite
complex, it has not been explored in the accounting literature.
In 1984 when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
called for the rewriting of the uniform system of accounts for telephone
companies, public utilities had not been following generally accepted
accounting principles (GAAP) as outlined by the Financial Accounting
Standards Board (FASB) and its predecessors, but instead used proce-
dures that had been outlined in 1934 by the FCC. The team responsible
for making recommendations on the rewriting of the system of ac-
counts established a basic policy that what was to be recommended
would comply with current GAAP.
The subcommittee responsible for reviewing and recommending
procedures for property, plant, and equipment was frustrated by the
lack of definitive information on accounting for assets. The primary
sources are very limited. The Accounting Principles Board (APB) and
the later FASB have been nearly silent on the subject beyond defining
depreciation and historical costs.
Accounting Research Bulletin (ARB) 43 was issued in 1953 to sum-
marize all previous GAAP. It requires that depreciation be calculated
What Is Accounting for Fixed Assets?
and disclosed. Most of the additional discussion on tangible assets
involved explaining why depreciation is appropriately calculated us-
ing historical costs. It is true that management must take into con-
sideration the probability that plant and machinery will have to be
replaced at cost much greater than those of the facilities now in use;
however, depreciation must not be calculated on the basis of this ex-
ARB 43 in paragraph C5 goes on to state:
The cost of a reproductive facility is one of the costs of the ser-
vices it renders during its useful economic life. Generally ac-
cepted accounting principles require that this cost be spread
over the expected useful life of the facility in such a way as to
allocate it as equitably as possible to the periods during which
services are obtained from the use of the facility. This proce-
dure is known as depreciation accounting, a system of ac-
counting which aims to distribute the cost or other basic value
of tangible capital assets, less salvage (if any), over the esti-
mated useful life of the unit (which may be a group of assets)
in a systematic and rational matter. It is a process of allocation,
not of valuation.
After formation of the Accounting Principles Board, APB 6 was
issued in 1964 continuing the authority outlined in ARB 43.
The Board continued to support the use of historical cost as op-
posed to inflation accounting:
The Board is of the opinion that property, plant, and equip-
ment should not be written up by an entity to reflect appraisal,
market or current values which are above cost to the entity.
APB 12, issued in 1967, requires the disclosure of depreciable as-
sets and depreciation. In addition to total depreciation expense and the
major classes of depreciable assets, it also requires disclosure of:
• Depreciation expense for the period.
• Balances of major classes of depreciable assets by nature of
function, at the balance sheet date.
• Accumulated depreciation, either by major classes of
depreciable assets or in total, at the balance sheet date.
Consumption of Benefits
• A general description of the method or methods used in
computing depreciation with respect to major classes of
CONSUMPTION OF BENEFITS
In 1984, the FASB issued Concept Statement 5, which included additional
discussion of assets. However, it was also limited in scope, as one
would expect in a concept statement.
The discussion emphasized the recognition assumption of assets,
clearly indicating that assets are consumed by their use and the cost
should be recognized in the accounting periods of their life.
Consumption of economic benefits during a period may be recog-
nized either directly or by relating it to revenues recognized during the
Some expenses such as depreciation and insurance are allocated
by systematic and rational procedures to the period during which the
related assets are expected to provide benefits.
“Any expense or loss (in future benefits) is recognized if it be-
comes evident that previously recognized future economic benefits of
an asset have been reduced or eliminated.”
Since its creation, the FASB has entertained considerable discus-
sion about assets, but the only statements issued cover specific assets:
• Expensing versus capitalizing research and development
• The accounting for software
• Depreciation in not-for-profit organization financial statements
• Impairment of Assets
• Involuntary Conversions
FASB Concept Statement 6, Elements of Financial Statements, has
more material than any other on the accounting for long-term tangible
assets. However, it addresses itself primarily to the definition, the pur-
pose of accrual accounting, and the characteristics of an asset.
In 1985, Concept Statement 6 added a definition of assets:
Assets are probable future economic benefits obtained or con-
trolled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or
What Is Accounting for Fixed Assets?
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSETS
Concept Statement 6 continues, enumerating the three essential charac-
teristics of an asset:
• It embodies a probable future benefit that involves a capacity,
singly or in combination with other assets, to combine directly
or indirectly to future net cash in flows.
• A particular entity can obtain the benefit and control others’
access to it.
• The transaction or other event giving rise to the entity’s right
to or control of the benefit has already occurred.
This is the first discussion in promulgated accounting rules discussing
the definition and characteristics of an asset. The major thrust is that
probable future benefit is the definition of an asset. To reflect it on the
balance sheet, the entity must be able to obtain benefit from the asset
and control others’ access to the asset. This statement also reviews the
concept of future economic benefit and service potential as it relates to
not-for-profit organizations. It states:
In a not-for-profit organization, the service potential or fu-
ture economic benefit is used to provide desired or needed
goods or services to beneficiaries or other constituents, which
may or may not directly result in net cash inflows to the or-
ganizations. Some not-for-profit organizations rely signifi-
cantly on contributions or donations of cash to supplement
selling prices. . . .
This discussion introduces the argument that depreciation of tan-
gible assets is an appropriate expense of not-for-profit organizations.
In a discussion of accrual accounting, Concept Statement 6 discusses
assets under a heading “Recognition, Matching, and Allocation.” In
paragraph 145, it states:
Accrual accounting uses accrual, deferral, and allocation pro-
cedures whose goal is to relate revenues, expenses, gains, and
losses to periods to reflect an entity’s performance during a pe-
riod instead of merely listing its cash receipts and outlays . . .
the goal of accrual accounting is to account in the periods in
which they occur for the effects on an entity of transactions and
Characteristics of Assets
other events and circumstances, to the extent that those finan-
cial effects are recognizable and measurable.
There is a discussion of costs and revenues to determine profits for
periods. Depreciation and assets are excluded from the matching con-
cept. Paragraph 149 of Concept Statement 6 explains:
However, many assets yield their benefit to an entity over sev-
eral periods, for example, prepaid insurance, buildings, and
various kinds of equipment. Expenses resulting from their use
are normally allocated to the periods of the estimated useful
lives (the periods over which they are expected to provide
benefits) by a rational allocation procedure, for example, by
recognizing depreciation or other amortization. Although the
purpose of expense allocation is the same as that of other ex-
pense recognition—to reflect the using up of assets as a result
of transactions or other events or circumstances affecting an
entity—allocation is applied if causal relations are generally,
but not specifically, identified. For example, wear and tear
from use is known to be a major cause of the expense called de-
preciation, but the amount of depreciation caused by wear and
tear in a period normally cannot be measured.
This discussion appears to make the distinction between the
matching principle for revenues and expenses and the allocation of
the cost of using up future benefits. Although this distinction is sub-
tle, it is the point of basic disagreement between those who argue for
inflation accounting and the depreciating of assets based on current
market value and those who argue for depreciating using a lesser his-
Appendix B of Concept Statement 6 further discusses characteristics
of assets, defining assets as “probable future economic benefits ob-
tained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions
Most of this discussion relates to intangible or nonphysical assets.
The FASB, in issuing its Statement 2, Accounting for Research and Devel-
opment Costs, also gives us some information on what makes up tangi-
ble physical assets. In their concern for the appropriate accounting for
research and development costs, they conclude that all should be
charged to expense accounts. However, they do give us their thoughts
What Is Accounting for Fixed Assets?
about which tangible assets should and should not be included in re-
search and development costs.
A prime consideration is that materials, equipment, and facilities
that have an alternative future use (in research and development projects
or otherwise) shall be capitalized as tangible assets when acquired or con-
structed. However, the costs of such materials, equipment, or facilities that
are acquired or constructed for a particular research and development
project and have no alternative future uses and therefore no separate eco-
nomic values are research and development costs at the time the costs are
incurred. All research and development costs encompassed by the state-
ment are charged to expense when incurred. This reflects the concept that
research and development costs will be used up during the span of the re-
search project. Tangible assets that have a life beyond the current project,
however, should be capitalized and depreciated over their useful lives.
The preceding paragraphs summarize the present state of GAAP
relating to property, plant, and equipment.
Many subjects in accounting have not been covered at length
within the promulgated statements. Most with the significance of long-
term tangible assets have been covered in more detail in secondary
accounting material, but few secondary publications provide any in-
depth discussion on fixed assets.
Research bulletins and disclosure drafts having to do with infla-
tion accounting have not been allowed to creep into generally accepted
Therefore, in determining the details of an accounting system for
property, plant, and equipment with the FCC study in 1984 and 1985,
the committee felt it necessary to use the secondary documents on as-
sets. The documents were used to establish current practice and to form
a model that telecommunications companies should use instead of the
1934 FCC regulations. The only additional definitive document dis-
cussing accounting for property, plant, and equipment was issued by
the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA, formerly the National
Association of Accountants) as Statement on Management Accounting
(SMA) 4. SMA 4 was issued in October 1972 with the title, Fixed Asset
Accounting: The Capitalization of Cost. Several concepts outlined in the
twenty-four-page statement include the following:
Costs through preparation for use
Characteristics of Assets
Extended life or increased capacity
Life greater than one year
Self-constructed assets that include direct overhead
No initial development cost
The SMA 4 discusses a number of concepts which were then, and
still are, common practice.
All Costs to Prepare Item for Use
All costs in addition to the invoice price to make an item of property, plant,
and equipment ready for use should be capitalized in its historical cost.
Normal repairs are charged to expense when incurred; however, ex-
traordinary repairs that extend the life, increase the capability, or increase
efficiency of the item should be capitalized during its life, the historical
cost increased, and depreciation recalculated from that date forward.
The base unit concept is not dealt with in any other document. It out-
lines the concept that property units should have a policy determina-
tion as to what constitutes the property record entity that is capitalized.
The base unit might be a complete machine or the individual compo-
nents of that machine. This concept is important when establishing a
usable property record system for a particular company. For example,
entities that use light trucks as maintenance vehicles may wear out a
number of trucks during the lives of hydraulic lifts, welding equip-
ment, and utility beds.
It is important for each company to have an asset manual with writ-
ten policies. Determinations of appropriate base units and other
policies unique to a company must be described and documented.
Without written policies, asset accounting will not be consistent
over a period of time.
What Is Accounting for Fixed Assets?
A minimum level of capitalization should be identified. Accounting
records that cost more than the items are worth are not cost effective.
Life Greater than One Year
Policy should emphasize that items with a life restricted to one ac-
counting period should be expensed no matter what their cost.
All costs of preparing assets for use should be capitalized; however,
only directly attributable or traceable overhead costs should be in-
cluded. General and administrative overhead costs should not be cap-
italized. If a company is not in the business of constructing assets,
overhead costs are not likely to be increased by an individual con-
struction project. Therefore, if those costs were capitalized, expenses in
the accounting period that the asset was being constructed would be
improperly reduced. Additionally, the initial development cost of
making a decision on which project to construct should not be in-
cluded in capitalizable costs. Subsequent costs for a specific project,
once the decision has been made, are capitalized.
The idea of the relative permanence of assets that are “fixed” is ques-
tioned by SMA 4. The statement notes that periods of nonuse should be
excluded from the depreciation schedule: “Until these assets can be said
to have completely satisfied the purpose for which they are intended—
normal or acceptable production capability—they are, for the time be-
ing, suspended accounting-wise in a sort of hiatus, not producing in-
come, hence not triggering depreciation against which it is to be set.”
SMA 4 was replaced in 1989 and 1990 by Statements 4J, Accounting
for Property, Plant, and Equipment, and 4L, Control of Property, Plant, and
Equipment. These two documents were prepared from a research proj-
ect published by the IMA Research Committee, reporting control and
analysis of property, plant, and equipment.
In other documents the discussion of accounting for fixed or phys-
ical assets is limited to a chapter, or a few paragraphs in accounting
textbooks. No lengthy document has been published that brings all the
concepts of accounting for property, plant, and equipment together.
Need to Change
There are many articles on fixed assets in accounting magazines
such as Strategic Finance, published by the Institute of Management
Accountants (IMA) and the Journal of Accountancy, published by the
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). Most
of these articles discuss theoretical issues of inflation accounting and
There are a number of accounting courses offered by such organi-
zations as the IMA, AICPA, and the American Management Association,
as well as by a number of accounting and appraisal firms. However,
these courses are mostly directed toward the tax requirements of ac-
counting for depreciation. Similarly, there are numerous off-the-shelf
personal computer programs aimed at fixed asset accounting. Again, the
primary purpose is to fulfill tax requirements and generate depreciation
entries. Only a few provide for comprehensive property records.
NEED TO CHANGE
It has become obvious that management must change the manner in
which they approach long-term tangible assets. The many production
facilities built in the United States are wearing out. Government infra-
structures of roads, sewers, sidewalks, and utilities are all suffering
from the concept of “put it in place and forget about it.”
The need is to get the most use out of these tangible assets. Much
of the discussion having to do with inflation accounting for assets re-
volves around the problem that depreciation is not sufficient to cover
the replacement costs of assets. The high cost of replacements, the
dwindling supply of capital available, and high interest rates all require
that new management control systems be put into place. With adequate
control, management, and measurement of asset utilization, organiza-
tions can maximize the benefits from their investment in long-lived,